Skip to main content

Questions tagged [archaic-language]

古語. Old words or phrases no longer in general spoken or written use.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
2 votes
1 answer
157 views

Verb ending in いでし

In Gosick episode 19, a character says this line: ああ罪なる者よ‌汚れし血の泉より生まれいでしお前に嘆きの祝福を which is translated "Oh, sinner. To you, born from a spring of foul blood. I offer lamentable blessings". ...
Mauro's user avatar
  • 3,597
0 votes
1 answer
86 views

Reading of もつて and であつて in legal texts

While reading the 特許法, I came across the following articles: 第一条 この法律は、発明の保護及び利用を図ることにより、発明を奨励し、もつて産業の発達に寄与することを目的とする。 第六条 法人でない社団又は財団であつて、代表者又は管理人の定めがあるものは、その名において次に掲げる手続をすることができる。 Referring to ...
ersbygre1's user avatar
  • 341
0 votes
1 answer
64 views

Why is いる in いらせらる conjugated いら, in 未然形, instead of 入り?

いらせらる consists of いる and せらる, the passive of suru I think, so why is it in 未然形? Usually, if a verb is and can be paired with する, it'd be in continuative form, so you'd say things like 入りもしない、 or ...
Star Peep's user avatar
  • 328
1 vote
1 answer
119 views

Use of "かな" in these Bashō/Sora haiku

First: I am a beginner. I don't know much. So, I am reading おくのほそ道. I am confused by the use of かな in these haiku: 田一枚植えて立ち去る柳かな and 卯の花をかざしに関のはれぎかな I have been told かな conveys uncertainty and ...
sunsigil's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
74 views

Using the verb ござんす ["to be"] in modern Japanese

If I use the verb ござんす As in しからばこの身を お疑いでござんすか So, do you doubt me? Will it be similar to English "Art thou doubting me" or will it give my speech a refined flavour or perhaps a ...
Japanese Learner's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
89 views

Why is the こおんな reading of 小女 considered "sensitive" when meaning a little maid?

I've stumbled on the こおんな ( 小女 ) word, which is labeled as archaic. However, of the three meanings given (small woman, young woman, young maid), the third one is additionally labeled as "...
Kzwix's user avatar
  • 13
3 votes
1 answer
137 views

What is the meaning of the inflection 若かりき?

I encountered what I think is an inflection of the adjective 若い and I couldn't find a suitable explanation for it. Here is the inflection in context: はにかみて君若かりきさかづきを挙げて銀座に相別れにき… Any clues would be ...
kiyopi's user avatar
  • 333
3 votes
0 answers
231 views

Japanese honourifics during the Heian period

I'm just curious about honorifics during the Heian period. I know that "daredare no kimi" was used often in court however I am curious about other honorifics extant during the period. ...
Jobalisk's user avatar
  • 131
3 votes
1 answer
210 views

Is 永い間 read 【ながいま】?

Reading this book いつまでもいつまでもお元気で 特攻隊員たちが遺した 最後の言葉 知覧特攻平和会館 ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-4794218308 I found the sentence 永【なが】い間【ま】、本当【ほんとう】に有難【ありがと】うございました。 Thank you for everything you have done for me over the ...
Ned Reif's user avatar
  • 2,004
1 vote
0 answers
92 views

Is the をば particle combination an abbreviated version of XはXを? [duplicate]

As far as I know when the topic and the object are the same we drop the object from the sentence to avoid redundancy. For example the following sentence is not correct: ラーメン は もう ラーメン を 食べました。 ...
ZeroProcess's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
235 views

Synonym of もちろん?

In Fruits Basket S2E5, around 20:30, Hanajima says something that sounds like "mochi atabou yo", which is subbed as "of course". I guess from this and her character that it's ...
Zubo's user avatar
  • 191
0 votes
0 answers
101 views

恨なし (恨がない or 恨なす?)

I'm reading a text which uses a lot of classical grammar and there's a sentence which I'm not sure how to translate. 同胞に恨なし、遂に魔の物を統べる魔帝をも討ち負かせり The text is about a swordsman and the part I'm not ...
Alice B. Rabbit's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
531 views

Power words: what are they, and what meanings do they have?

Can someone explain the “power words” in Japanese? I remember learning that it was once thought that Japanese had reached a level of completeness beyond many other languages because of certain words ...
Ragaroni's user avatar
  • 920
0 votes
0 answers
138 views

あわれめ? (“Greetings”)?

Can あわれむ be used as the Sanskrit “hare”? My dictionary gives “enjoy the beauty of” as an obsolete definition. However, compassion, mercy, and sympathize are also listed, so it’s not clear to me. Most ...
Ragaroni's user avatar
  • 920
4 votes
1 answer
611 views

What role do the Siddham characters have in Japanese?

The bonji, 梵字, are somewhat common. Are the only used as germ letters in Japanese, as has been explained to me, or are they used to form words and other higher concepts? Is this a living language ...
Ragaroni's user avatar
  • 920
2 votes
0 answers
171 views

Confusing interchangeability of 汝 and 己

In most cases, 汝 is the formal/archaic second person pronoun, "you/thou", and 己 is a humble and archaic first-person pronoun or a way to refer to oneself. However, confusingly, in many ...
LittleWhole's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
108 views

Does anyone recognize these characters? [closed]

Does anyone recognize these? I have a hard time recognizing more calligraphy-esque characters. Thanks in advance.
Phill's user avatar
  • 1
2 votes
2 answers
342 views

What is the meaning of 「はあ」 in this excerpt?

日本語 こんにちは。 川上弘美著の「神様」という小説を読んでいます。 「河童玉」という章の以下のくだりに、男河童と女河童と人間のウテナさんの三人がいます。 「ほれご挨拶を」と(男河童に)うながされて、女河童はもじもじしながら頭を下げた。下げるなり、ウテナさんににじり寄って、「うちのひとがはあお世話に。河童玉やらなにやら、できることは全部してみたんですが、いまひとつ効果なしなんですよう、...
Pawel Batko's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
465 views

「つきおうて」や「あいおうて」はどういう意味でしょうか?

こんにちは、 川上弘美著の「神様」の小説を読んでいます。 「河童玉」という章で、ある男河童が女河童についてこう言っています。 三百年もつきおうてござりますから、些かのいさかいもありましたし気持ちが行き違うこともありました、つまりはまあ山も谷もあったということでございますが、三百年にしては波瀾は少なかったほうであるように思います。儂と女河童はなんといっても気持ちが寄り添ってござったし、...
Pawel Batko's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
104 views

What does "近侍の臣" mean?

I'm reading a story about ancient Japan and I have a problem with what seems to be a title of some kind (?): 近侍の臣. Here's the context: この年の春、樹々 の芽吹く ころから、クナ国の兵がしきりに国境を侵しはじめた。ここ数年、たえて無かったことである。 ...
user38505's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
734 views

What is the proper way to use 余[よ] as a personal pronoun?

Whenever I play Fate/Grand Order, one thing I often hear when I use that game's version of Nero Claudius is her using 余 when referring to herself. Looking it up shows me that this particular pronoun ...
Roy Fuentes's user avatar
  • 1,608
3 votes
0 answers
263 views

Suffixes: らしき versus っぽい

I came across the following sentence recently: バイトらしき女の子に優しく教えてくれた。 Strangely, it was my first time encountering this form of らしい and I understood the meaning immediately, but it brought to mind ...
TFlo83's user avatar
  • 792
3 votes
1 answer
2k views

How was the Pacific Ocean named in Japan before Magellan?

The word 太平洋{たいへいよう} can be translated literally as "peaceful ocean" as somebody noticed in the question Oceans ー Thick or Big?. But, as far as I know, the name was invented by Ferdinand Magellan: ...
mpasko256's user avatar
  • 395
8 votes
1 answer
363 views

Meaning of "お戯れを"?

Can someone tell me what "お戯れを" means? I came across this in a Japanese drama. I can't quite figure out if this is almost like a formal and polite request to make somebody stop 'kidding around' or if ...
Kei4272's user avatar
  • 81
1 vote
1 answer
216 views

Etymology of bateren (伴天連 / 破天連)

The archaic Japanese word bateren 伴天連 / 破天連 (referring to a missionary [Jesuit] priest) is derived from the Portuguese padre. The Portuguese word notably does not contain or end in a nasal consonant, ...
ヤコブ's user avatar
  • 283
0 votes
1 answer
3k views

What is the usage of these 12 kanjis (彁, 墸,壥,挧,暃,椦,槞,蟐,袮,閠,駲,妛)+18 more in modern Japanese? How to read it?

I read from this interesting article that it's included in 幽霊文字 (yuurei moji/ghost kanji (character). I tried to look up each of those kanjis: I use these sites to look up those kanjis: a.jisho.org ...
Flonne's user avatar
  • 765
2 votes
1 answer
213 views

Is まはりて an archaic form of 廻って, and how is it broken down grammatically?

I came across a cover version of "Bad Apple", where the singer uses a more traditional style than the original song, including a translation of the (modern) lyrics into more archaic/poetic language. ...
Soron's user avatar
  • 123
2 votes
0 answers
310 views

Word lists/sources for pitch accent in Middle Japanese

Is there anywhere I can find a list of words and what their reconstructed pitches were in Middle Japanese? Or especially what words we have tone dot information on (with a preference for the oldest ...
LinguistCat's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
331 views

Transcribing iteration marks: kunojiten , くの字点

The iteration marks 々, ヽ, ヾ, ゝ, ゞ are slightly smaller than standard kana, and are often seen in print when a contemporary scholar is transcribing text, a printmaker's seal, etc. My question relates ...
musha's user avatar
  • 525
9 votes
2 answers
1k views

其之 what's the exact meaning of this?

I'm translating a comic and I found this kanji combination on the headers. It's like a counter for pages. 其之一 其之二 etc. その is the reading. I wanted to get more info about that but I didn't find ...
lovelykotori's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
295 views

The logic behind なくば

だが、主であるそなたの許可なくばそれも許されぬ…! I understand it pretty much means "However, being our master, we can't even do that without your permission." but I don't get why なく and ば are both together. I would have ...
Ushiromiya's user avatar
  • 2,161
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

Questions About Archaic Japanese

I recently came across this song that I really like, 「神居謡{かむいよう}」. (Link to the full lyrics here.) This sparked a few questions about archaic Japanese, which I know little of. How would you translate 「...
Senevir's user avatar
  • 43
5 votes
3 answers
757 views

Grammar of "なかれ"

When I read the story, I found "なかれ"this word occurred several times. 「若い衆、知らない人を信用するでなかれ。」 「お前の持っていたお守りのおかげで命拾いしたのじゃ。望みすぎるなかれ。ここに幸なかれ。」 I looked it up and the sentences my dictionary provide ...
chika's user avatar
  • 839
2 votes
1 answer
735 views

What happened to original, pre-Kanji, Japanese words?

Some of the most common words in Japanese seem to have their origin in Chinese: 会議、日本、世界、先生、。。。 The evidence for this is, as far as I know, the fact that these words are written with characters, ...
Martin Drozdik's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
671 views

Meaning of 「かくや(という)」

A quote from 80日間世界一周: 巨大な湖が凍ったらかくやという景色だった。 It seemed like a vast frozen lake. I'm guessing the 「かく」 is this one, but I don't understand how the 「や」 works. Could this be a set phrase?
siikamiika's user avatar
  • 3,089
1 vote
1 answer
455 views

Questions about の→ん contraction, でござる→でございます shift

【原文】Original version 各これらの語の特徴はいつからなの?何時代ですの? 第一、「のです」と「なのです」を書いて「んです」と「なんです」を書かなかったことはいつからなの? 第に、「でござる」を書いて「でございます」を書かなかったこともいつからなの? 私の日本語がよくないですと、すみません! Edited version I have two questions ...
Tirous's user avatar
  • 3,412
9 votes
1 answer
482 views

Kun Yomi of Chinese origin, like 竹 (take)

I have came across an English book on Ancient Japanese languages. (Sorry I forgot the book name) In the book, it says some Kun Yomi of Kanji actually come from early contact of Chinese languages. ...
OmniBus's user avatar
  • 193
5 votes
3 answers
860 views

The meaning of やわこく in archaic dialog

Reading a novel and there's a part of a sentence that I don't quite understand. For context, the person speaking is at a small party, being completely drunk while speaking to this fit, sober woman. ...
Jinzal's user avatar
  • 333
3 votes
1 answer
513 views

What is this archaic female honorific form called, and what relationship does it describe?

I stumbled upon this way of referring to women that was apparently used in pre-war Japan。I can't remember where I found it, or what was said about it's name or purpose, just that it went something ...
Tirous's user avatar
  • 3,412
5 votes
1 answer
813 views

Meaning of さすれば as a verb

In the passage, この救済の光を さすればここは幸福な場所となる what is the meaning of さすれば? Is it the kana for 然すれば? In this context, I would have expected 射せば to be written instead.
user19772's user avatar
  • 199
1 vote
4 answers
373 views

What is the use of 他(ひと)in this sentence?

この間もちょっと畳で爪を磨いだら細君が非常に怒ってそれから容易に座敷へ入れない。 The other day when I happened to be sharpening my claws on some straw floor-matting, the mistress of the house became so unreasonably incensed that now it is ...
his holiness's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
175 views

What is つ in 中つ国 and why is it equivalent to の?

According to Wikipedia: 中つ国(なかつくに)とは中間の国、中央の国を意味し、「つ」は現代語の「の」に相当する。中津国、中国とも書く。 I looked for 津 in a dictionary but it seems to be an 当て字 so I did not get new information. But I can't get why の was ...
永劫回帰's user avatar
  • 7,043
1 vote
1 answer
286 views

Oldest Japanese Pronunciation for "When Is It?"

I'm writing a story with some... very old people, so I'm chasing down some very outdated pronunciations. What's the oldest known pronunciation for the sentence "When is it?" (I'm not directly asking ...
linkhyrule5's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
183 views

Help with understanding a "broken" 手紙文

A letter from a story, where a character (又八) elopes with a woman (お甲), with both writing a letter each to the man's betrothed (お通, who 又八 abandoned with said woman) (お甲's letter quoted full, for ...
user12413's user avatar
  • 467
3 votes
2 answers
199 views

Is なくなく an emphatic negative expression (e.g. in 力なくなく)?

I guess it is an archaic form... Sometimes I hear an adverbial phrase 力{ちから}なくなく used in context when someone resigned something after an effort. Let's say a warrior was pursuing another one to no ...
macraf's user avatar
  • 6,537
6 votes
1 answer
279 views

What is ~やまさりけん and what part of sentence is it used as?

In the scenes of fight in old stories, I sometimes encountered a phrase ~やまさりけん usually in the compound form: 力やまさりけん 腕やまさりけん What is the exact meaning of the phrase and what part of the ...
macraf's user avatar
  • 6,537
5 votes
1 answer
776 views

The meaning of 来なんだ (a seemingly archaic form)

Situation from a story: 侍A is pursuing 侍B. 侍A meets 町人C and interrogates him: 侍B (some description)、逃げては来なんだかな。 I guess it must mean something like "didn't he come here while running away?" I ...
macraf's user avatar
  • 6,537
7 votes
1 answer
369 views

Origin of the word 烏有

I saw the phrase 烏有{うゆう}に帰{き}す, which means to "become nothing" as if turning to ashes. The word "烏有" means nothing, but its parts are 烏 (crow) and 有 (to be). How did 烏有 come to mean nothing? When I ...
Coupon22's user avatar
  • 708
2 votes
1 answer
167 views

Would a phrase 人の跡を求める be understood without a reference to Basho?

There is a quote from Matsuo Basho: 古人の跡を求めず、古人の求めしところを求めよ Nowadays, would a phrase 人の跡を求める be understood as "to follow someone"s footsteps". Would it be grammatically valid in contemporary ...
macraf's user avatar
  • 6,537
3 votes
1 answer
736 views

What is this script called?

I have seen this script many times before, but the best information anyone can give me is that they are archaic and almost no one uses them. Here is a photo of the characters then versus now:
Morella Almånd's user avatar