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Questions tagged [copula]

コピュラ. Words such as だ・です or constructions such as である which link a noun or adjective to a subject. Similar to English 'be'.

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How does に+だって work if に+だ and に+で is incorrect?

So if we take this sentence 「鳥や魚にだって喜怒哀楽の感情があると思う。」 We can see that the に particle is directly attached to the だ copula. The だ copula really just being である, doesn't this mean the に particle and で ...
ItsCheif's user avatar
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Analysis of -tatte/-datte attached to nouns, adjectives and verbs, equivalent to -demo

There is a suffix -tatte/-datte that attaches to nouns, adjectives and verbs: sensei datte = sensei de mo hazukashikutatte = hazukashikute mo yondatte = yonde mo kitatte = kite mo And the meaning is ...
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Nonsense sentences with だ

I recently encountered these sentences which must be nonsense because AはBだ means 'A is B'. 私は105号室だ 「ノルウェーの森」は村上春樹だ 東京は初めてだ
N. Hunt's user avatar
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にて / で adverbializer?

にて is older form of で, and now has literary or archaic nuance. にて itself was created by adding suffix て to に, which is form of copular verb n-. Traditional interpretation (e.g. here) is that 2 main ...
Arfrever's user avatar
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Does な originating from ~にある mean you can replace な with ~にある today?

It has been said elsewhere that だ, な, and の all originate in some for another from Old Japanese copulas. E.g.: だ originates from ~である の sometimes marks the genitive/possessive case, but sometimes it ...
George's user avatar
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Tense of sentences ending with のだ such as 楽しかったんだ

From what I can find, 楽しかったんだ is considered to be in the past tense, which confuses me. I would have thought that の nominalized the preceding phrase, and the sentences as a whole was then placed in ...
Magnus Lidbom's user avatar
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What's the function of であられる?

I came across another confusing Japanese translation of the Qur'an. Here's the Arabic text: قُلۡ هُوَ اللّٰهُ اَحَدٌ​ (the Qur'an chapter 112 verse 1) Here's the English translation: Say, He is ...
Amir Syafrudin's user avatar
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1 answer
276 views

For this sentence 本日は晴天なりといったとする, could I replace なり to です, if not, why?

ChatGPT said '"なり" (nari) functions as a copula, which is a word that links the subject of a sentence with a predicate or description. Specifically, "なり" serves as a literary or ...
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Meaning of で in 「1匹で食べています」

Consider 猫が3匹います 1匹で食べています from 2m50s of this video. DeepL translates the bottom sentence as "I'm eating one of them", which I'm pretty sure is wrong :] From context, it seems to mean &...
George's user avatar
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Particles can be put before copula だ?

In the anime Relife ep1, I met this line "酔ってた勢いでだ". I don't know what is で here. Is it an abbreviation, dialect, or particle? Or this is a casual speech that is ungrammatical? If it is a ...
Phong Tran's user avatar
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Placing the copula だ not at the end of a sentence

In お酒は、ほろ酔いのうちが最高だと言われる。 It's said that alcohol is the best while tipsy. there is a だ placed before the end of a sentence. I was under the impression that だ can only be placed at the end of the ...
George's user avatar
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What verb is being dropped in 「また、近いうちに」

Consider また、近いうちに。 Let's meet again soon. I'm assuming a verb is being implicitly dropped here. Which one is it? Is it the volitional copula (だろう)?
George's user avatar
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Using the verb ござんす ["to be"] in modern Japanese

If I use the verb ござんす As in しからばこの身を お疑いでござんすか So, do you doubt me? Will it be similar to English "Art thou doubting me" or will it give my speech a refined flavour or perhaps a ...
Japanese Learner's user avatar
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Can the Copula Be Split From its で-particle, as in「学生でも子供でもない」?

The sentence 学生でも子供でもない translates to [It is] neither a student nor a child. Initial Questions: First, just confirming: the use of でも here is just で + も, and has nothing to do with with the ...
George's user avatar
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Parsing a tricky の [duplicate]

サンプルが腐った色のレストラン (from a 川柳) I'm confused by the の and how to parse this sentence. The most straight-forward parse doesn't sit well with me. サンプルが腐った色 : The color of rotten sample. (サンプル is the ...
Arzar's user avatar
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Could you call the い/i - suffix of adjectives a copula?

Now I have seen people call だ the only copula, even excluding its adverbial or attributive forms で and な (and seemingly の), with the argument that only predicative copulas, which are necessary for ...
Oran Matheus's user avatar
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Does だ in 予定だ add emphasis?

I thought <noun>+だ at the end of a casual sentence adds emphasis (unlike the constructions where だ is needed for grammatical reasons such んだ, だから, だけど). So when I want to simply share some ...
max's user avatar
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What is the function of で in 「家に帰らないで映画を観に行った」?

In the sentence 昨日は授業の後、家に帰らないで映画を観に行った。 Is で the て-form of だ? Or is it the で particle? In either case, wouldn't the clause before it (家に帰らない) need to be nominalized (の) in order for で to attach to ...
George's user avatar
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Understanding 「40秒で心臓麻痺だったな…」 [duplicate]

From the first episode of Death Note, the protagonist reads the rules inside the Death Notebook: “40秒以内に死因を書くとそのとおりになる” Later, immediately after writing someone's name in the book, he remarks: ...
George's user avatar
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Understanding 「それが人質の証言では」

From the first episode of Death Note: それが人質の証言では Question: I'm familiar with ではない, but don't understand what では alone means here?
George's user avatar
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野原みたいで素敵でしょう? De purpose

野原みたいで素敵でしょう? 野原みたい素敵でしょう? Can anyone explain the nuance added by de here? I feel like it may be a conjunctive copula, or perhaps it is meant to be a location marker? I'm not sure if it means "...
Catdog's user avatar
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Why is ある required in あるはずない?

From the first episode of Death Note, the main character utters to himself that something can't be possible: ふん、まさかな…そんなわけあるはずない Question: What is the ある doing in this sentence? If はずない is an i-...
George's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is 人 in 人だ (gramatically)?

In the elementary sentence: 人だ 人 is not marked with a particle. So what does it function as, gramatically? If we translate the sentence as A person exists. then presumably "person" ...
George's user avatar
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What's the difference between ending an answer with だ vs だよ・です?

I was talking to someone and they asked me: 出身はどこなの? to which I responded saying: イギリス出身だ My friend then told me that that sounded a bit strange, and it would have sounded more natural if I had ...
torudoll's user avatar
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Can a irrealis form verb be combined with the adjective particle "な"

I asked this question because irrealis form and continuative form verbs can be combined with だ, so can't it be combined with na? I mean it looks ungrammatical but da goes with it so...
Star Peep's user avatar
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1 answer
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にで and でに confusion

So I saw these particles in a definition and a song. First, as ひとりでに, which got translated as by itself (this got approved by the way) and then "単独にでなく", which I'm guessing means not being ...
Star Peep's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
182 views

だ in 「別に迷惑だなんて」

別に迷惑だなんて What kind of difference in meaning or nuances does this だ impart to such an utterance? Examples with だ: 電車から車椅子が降りる時や、車椅子が階段昇降機を使う時に、駅員さんの「ご迷惑をおかけしまーす」という掛け声が聞こえてくるけど、別に迷惑だなんて思ってないから、「...
Eddie Kal's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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「仕方なくです」 形容詞の連用形 く+ copula です?

I am stumped by 「仕方なくです」 which I have heard/seen occasionally. 用があり仕方なく広島へ。。。仕方なくですね (source) 一年ぶりに来ました。友人に行きたいと言われて仕方なくですが、、、鶏皮は一人5本に減ってました。(source) 仕方なくです!(笑) (source) I know 形容詞の連用形 く, apart ...
Eddie Kal's user avatar
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1 vote
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It seems だ can be omitted in とは思う?

いたずらに会議体を作って、賛否両論を並べ、これ以上時間を費やすのは賢明とは思えません。(source) しかし、何時までも状況改善を待つことは賢明とは思えません。(source) 今日のあなたの服装はとても仕事向きの服装とは思えませんが。(source) I am under the impression after a 名詞/形容動詞, 「だとは思えません」 and the だ-less 「...
Eddie Kal's user avatar
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3 votes
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〜を。。。だ inside a と言う clause

In the ASK Graded Reader ゴン狐, the following sentence appears: 魚売りは、おれを泥棒だと言って、。。。 I have seen that using を。。。と言う is like saying 'to call somebody something.' My issue is that there is a だ at the end ...
frog's user avatar
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1 answer
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conditional ば with だ? [duplicate]

I found this: でも、考えてみればだ。 Actually this is the first time I've seen a だ with a conditional together. What does it mean?
Alejandro Núñez Valdés's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
172 views

What is the difference between 「でがす」 and 「です」?

Here is the sentence I came across the word 「でがす」. とりあえず これはアッシからのおみやげでがす。 受け取っておくんなせえ。 I'm not sure if it is an archaic form of the copula「です」. Is there any nuance between them?
George's user avatar
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Why is ばかり used with だ / です

ばかり, when used to add the connotation of having just done something, usually (or nearly always, in the examples I've seen), takes a copula after it. Either だ or です. An example: 彼は帰ったばかりだ。 My ...
Esoppant's user avatar
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1 answer
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Grammatically, how does「である」work? [duplicate]

In「である」、my previous understanding was that the「で」functions the same way as the "method/means" particle「で」by making everything that came before it attached to「で」and that「ある」is just regular「ある」...
DeityofAutomation's user avatar
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117 views

What is the difference between べき and べきだ

Are べき and べきだ one and same thing? I found many grammars where べき is defined, but examples with べきだ are provided. 知るべき。 両親には従うべきだ。 Or is だ a copula? But then why do we use a copula in such case?
Starckman's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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Dropping だ in sentences

I was again reading Shin Kanzen Master N1 Dokkai when I encountered a passage with a sentence which intrigued me. The second sentence read 最初と言われています。 While I do understand that dropping of だ ...
rebuuilt's user avatar
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2 votes
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is this そうなんだか a valid sentence?

If そうなんですか (sounandesuka) is formal, how come it's not often that I hear of そうなんだか (sounandaka) as casual version or maybe that I just don't hear enough? thanks.
John Adams's user avatar
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The grammar of 何でもない [duplicate]

How does 何でもない work in terms of grammar to mean nothing? I am confused because I'm not sure which of these is happening (or even if it is one of these): 1: Is it getting 何で (why) and then adding も to ...
batv1's user avatar
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1 answer
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Three grammatical questions about Japanese Manga

The following is an exercise I do daily to better understand grammar. I’ll claim A and the title. Title: 第3話75歳の値段 第 is a prefix to form ordinal numbers. In this case, it precedes 3, so third. 話 ...
Etienne Zizka's user avatar
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Is the で in ~が原因で~ the copula?

In constructs like ~が原因で起こった~ is the で the て form of だ? For example in: 旦那や子どもへの嫉妬が原因で起こったママ友トラブル I assume it is for the が to make sense, but I can't find any information on this, so if anyone knows ...
Lucas's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Obscure verb forms?

Question 1. It my understanding that you can form a negative polite volitional by attaching まい to the ます of the verb. For example, 食{た}べます becomes 食べますまい. Is it therefore also possible to turn the ...
Trevor Kafka's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
284 views

Can you say“ 何が貴方のお名前はですか”?Or does 何 have to come before です?

I’ve read that what’s your name is “貴方のお名前は何ですか“ but can you also put 何 to the beginning or is that incorrect? So can it be: 何が貴方のおなまえはですか。
Siro Caruso's user avatar
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How does がんだとわかった work in this sentence?

I grabbed this sentence off NHK news easy, https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/easy/k10012139481000/k10012139481000.html . The sentence is, 国立成育医療研究センターと国立がん研究センターは、2016年と2017年,...
UCProgrammer's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
314 views

Nominal connectors in embedded sentences: 名詞・形容動詞 +「である」「だという」「な」等 (+ こと) の使い分けについて

This is a general question about what to place after nominals when connecting them to constructs like こと. Lately I've realized I've either forgotten or never knew when I should be using だということ over ...
weirdalsuperfan's user avatar
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1 answer
152 views

What's the usage of で in this sentence: 日本はユーラシア大陸の東にある島国で国の70%は山です。

日本はユーラシア大陸の東にある島国で国の70%は山です。 I translated it as something like "Japan is an island country of east of the Eurasia continent and 70% of it is made of mountains."
Leticia 's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
338 views

When to omit だ when answering questions?

Maybe this is a stupid question, but in Minna no Nihongo it says to omit だ when giving a positive answer to a question. Question: こんばんひま? Answer: うん、ひま。 But it is not explained if one can omit だ ...
Leliana's user avatar
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1 vote
3 answers
468 views

Nominalization of です?

Basically I’m wondering if です can be nominalized. For example how would you say: ”I don’t like being mean.” or ”It’s good to be nice!” Can I say: 酷いであるのが好きじゃない? 優しいであるのがいい? These are my attempts ...
jacoballens's user avatar
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9 votes
2 answers
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The uses of である

I understand that である is most commonly used to replace だ/です at the end of a sentence in written expressions. But outside this usage, I can't find much explanation on how to use this structure. In ...
shade549's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
144 views

Can だ be left off in informal sentences?

In declarative statements I’ve gathered that saying just 「これ新聞だ」for example would be too forward or a bit aggressive. So could you just say 「これ新聞」or even just 「新聞」for informal sentences? I understand ...
jacoballens's user avatar
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8 votes
1 answer
430 views

で in the copula である

I have always wondered where the で in ~である (and ~でございます) comes from. In the answer to the question 「です」, what is it really? Is my analysis correct?, Eiríkr Útlendi states that the で in ~である is the ...
Kaskade's user avatar
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