You list several constructions.
The core of all of these is the word よう ("likeness, that-ness"), usually functioning more as an adjective meaning "like / similar to / as if [whatever came before in the sentence]". All the rest of it is particles and auxiliaries. These seem to be what's confusing you, ...
As a native Japanese speaker, I'd rather explain my own feeling or thoughts at the times facing of someone saying those sentences:
He/she has "made" him/herself believe something - or he/she consiously defines his/her beliefs as such.
2) いつか願いが叶うのを信じている。/ いつか願いが叶うことを信じている。
He/she believes something.
Basically those sentences are ...
They have different structures as you've translated, and both forms are used as often as the other unlike English. If I reword them to be clearer:
食べないつもりです = I have an intention that: "I'm not going to eat (it)"
食べるつもりはないです = I have no such intention that: "I'm going to eat (it)"
...and don't forget:
食べるつもり（では／じゃ）ないです = I don't have an intention that: "...
絶滅: "extinction (of species)"; a kango technical term used only in biological contexts
消滅: "disappearance", "vanishing"; a kango used with various subjects in various technical/legal/academic contexts
When someone says 消滅した種族, I would say it probably refers to a vanished (ethnic) tribe, because 絶滅 is the normal term ...
Neither is better than the other per se, but there is a clear difference in formality. As usual, the kango version (死亡) is more formal, whereas the wago version (死ぬ) is more common in casual speech.
See questions tagged with wago-and-kango.
食べるつもりはないです/つもりはありません is usually safer and more natural. 食べないつもりです is grammatically perfectly correct, but it can sound direct and harsh. People tend to use the latter if they clearly want to express a concern or hatred about the food.
This point with ～と(certain verbs) is discussed in the N1 grammar 過去問題集 by ドリル＆ドリル. There is a difference between を and と for me but I don't feel comfortable explaining it. Anyhow, I think that explaining exactly what と is doing will help a bit.
Explanation by grammar resource
The discussion is an elaboration on this sentence:
According to N1N2N3外国人のための日本語学習ブログ : 日本語能力試験２級文法 ～を通して／～を通じて／～によって,
１．［名詞］＋を通（とお）して／［名詞］＋を通（つう）じて＝ 「～をとおって（to go/pass through)」「直接ではなく間に何か入って」「ずっと～」という意味。
「~を通して、〜を通じて」 is used to express "the experience; go/pass thorough", "doing something using the medium such as person or things", "throughout ~".
体験を通して、学んだことは忘れない。「～をとおって（to go/pass through)」
食品, 食料品 and 食料 (食糧) all potentially have same referents, but the circumstances where you see those words are significantly different. If I restate their concepts in clearer phrases:
食品: items for you to eat
食料品: items for you to buy and eat
食料: resources to sustain lives
食品 is probably the word that covers broadest meaning to generally refer to foodstuffs, ...
I basically agree with the other answer. But, we need to connect them with the boxing a bit.
I adopt the definition もったいぶらない ; doing something without hesitation/reluctance and apply it to the boxer.
So, probably the boxer prefer to fight against his opponent very aggressively without considering stamina i.e. no hesitation.
According to the wikipedia, I ...
In my interpretation, they suggest a different background / context.
絶滅 is group-wise (species) viewed from system, and it only talks about the fact, no implication for the cause.
滅ぶ is an intransitive verb so it implies a little bit of causality. (such an animal ate all their food source and break an food supply chain and cannot survive anymore, or tribe/...
Until/unless ~ happens or is done, ... cannot happen or be done either. Used in negating or negative statements.
I agree with the definition of ～てからでなければ in this sentence.
Until/unless you wake up at 4 o'clock, you cannot arrive the time of departure of flight.
This is a weird situation isn't it? If you wake up before 4 o'...
There are some people in the park(幾人か(or 何人か)公園にいる).
There are many people in the park(たくさん(大勢)の人が公園にいる).
There are a few people in the park(数人が公園にいる).
There are few people in the park(公園にはほとんど人はいない).
I translated your examples as follows.
Some were surprised, many were not.(驚いた人もいたが、大半は驚かなかった。)
Few understand the value of health ...