答え: (correct) answer, answer to a problem/question
受け答え: verbal response, (conversational) exchange
答え is what's important in an examination, and is synonymous to 解答, 回答 or 正答. 受け答え is what's important in an interview, and is synonymous to 応答 or やりとり. 答え is what you "give", whereas 受け答え is what you "do".
答え is an answer to a question ...
It's from old 山の手言葉. ざます/ざぁます/ざんす used to be actively used in the past among classy madams in Yamanote regions, but today it's used mainly in fiction as role language of snobbish people and nouveau riche (usually middle-aged or older).
The most famous user of ざます in fiction is probably Suneo's mother.
My understanding of this matter is:
[masu-stem] + そうだ is used to tell an associative guess based on a sensory input from the target
[dictionary-form] + らしい is used to tell a conclusion from evidence, without direct contact with the target
We use ～しそうだ when we run into a situation that we can naturally associate an apparent scene we sense with another ...
Three monolingual dictionaries I checked have both of the following definitions:
to conceal, to hide
to have within itself, to possess (if not showily)
So how secretive it is depends on the context, but it's somewhere between 強大な力を宿している and 強大な力を隠している. I think "had a great power" is a reasonable translation in many cases.
The difference is actually very simple. The subject of 帰る is a human or an animal, and the destination is a place where they usually belong (home, office, den, etc). In other words, you can think 帰る means "to get home" on its own most of the time. On the other hand, the subject of 返る is an inanimate object, e.g., 返事, 落とし物.
There is no way to identify the specific meaning of あまり〜ない other than context...
As for your last qusetion, 日本語はめったにorたまにしか話しません is better to be correctly understood.
If you stick to あまり〜ない structure, add 普段. 普段あまり話さない sounds not often, rather than not well.
Vて + しまう works with any action verb. The nuance is "although possibly undesirable/unnecessary, finish/do it anyway".
V切る works with many (but certainly not all) verbs. The nuance is "with much effort", "exhaustively", "every last one", "finally".
The verb is in the formとなっている which you could construe in this context as “has become”. But that would result in an awkward translation in English. So, “consists of” seems like a reasonable translation.
But what seems reasonable to me aside, check out Kenkyusha’s New Japanese English Dictionary. This dictionary (at least my print addition which is over 20 ...
According to several online articles Google showed to me, people who believe they are different seem to say 懇親会 is more official/formal/serious (like ones held at a hotel after a business conference or a 入社式), while 親睦会 is more casual/private (like 合コン, お花見, etc). I also feel 懇親会 sounds slightly more formal, but perhaps not many people distinguish them ...
～てみたい comes from ～てみる. It's simply the て form with the verb 見る (notice that it's usually written in かな alone, though).
～てみる means to "try to do something". For instance, 食べてみる (try to eat), 飲んでみる (try to drink), etc...
When you use the stem form of the verb + たい, it expresses the desire to do something. Some examples: 食べたい (I want to eat), 飲みたい (I ...
A 台 is closer to "stand" or "base". It can be big or small, depending on the thing you put on it.
A 卓 is closer to "booth" or "counter". It can refer to tables or desks in general, but today it typically refers to some specialized desks you use while standing or sitting by it. For details, please see: When is a table ...