Both mean the same thing. The difference is how they combine with other words.
According to this, 大臣 is more about individuals while 閣僚 is more about the ministers as a group of people.
My impression is that they are not so interchangeable.
外務大臣 Minister of Foreign Affairs. Not 外務閣僚
末は博士か大臣か will become a PhD or a minister in future - an oldish set phrase ...
This セーフ is an antonym for アウト, and I believe they are from safe and out as baseball terms. セーフ means "close/questionable but barely acceptable/legal/successful", whereas アウト means "close/questionable but wrong/unacceptable/illegal". They are typically used in the context of the application of rules/laws.
惜しい is not "regrettable"...
「今回は惜しい」 means "This time you are so close (to the right answer)".
「惜しい」 has several different meanings, and in the sentence it means "so close", not "regrettable".
For example:「負けたけど、惜しかった。(=We lost, but we were so close (to winning)).」
「セーフ」 is a Japanese-English word from "Safe" in baseball. It has a broad meaning ...
切り整える just means to cut and put in order. What is put in order is ragged edge of the hairs (I'm not sure the term is appropriate).
In hair cutting context, 整える does not add so much substantial meaning, but the meaning of 切り整える (or 切り揃える which is synonymous) is cutting a bunch of hair to the same length. (I do not mean it implies one length hair style, but ...
体格 is more of a human body shape to describe like skinny, normal, fat, masculine, etc. It is used in a neutral way.
スタイル tends to describe one's outlook in an affirmative way. (e.g. tall and skinny has been considered to be suitable for a fashion model)
This is parsed like:
Prime Minister Suga pointed out "(1)＿＿" and told "(2)＿＿".
And the two quotes are:
This is going to be an unusual event held under the emergency declaration
I have always said (to you, the media) that we are willing to go without an audience ...
It's said right after かつ, so he is probably saying "as a continuation (of the first reason not included in the video)" or "by extension". その連続性で is not a common wording, and I usually expect それと関連して, それ繋がりで, その関連で, etc. Outside math contexts, 連続性がある may simply mean closely related.
...and, by extension,...
This 来る still roughly means "to come (to the speaker)", but its subject can often be some intangible stimulation (e.g., pain, stink, hunger) or strong emotion (e.g., sorrow, anger). In English, perhaps "to strike (me)" or "to come off (to me)" is somewhat close.
This question resembles recursion, because your interpretation is 惜しい.
I would translate the bold part sentence literally as "Since this time it is regrettable that your answer is wrong, I would take it as a safe".
Yes, your word-to-word literal translation per se, is not wrong. I'll elaborate on the "regrettable" and "safe" ...
You can use a relative clause modifying 場所. This is a huge grammar topic in both English and Japanese. If you're totally new to this, please take time and read your textbook first. The following links should be helpful as a starter:
Relative clauses distinguishing whom/with which/that
Tae Kim's Guide to Learning Japanese: Relative Clauses and Sentence Order
とろん(と) is an adverb that is roughly the same as とろとろ(と) or とろりと. It describes how something melts into a semi-solid form. Imagine melting chocolate.
Related: How are the giongo/gitaigo double form and tto form related (きらきら vs. きらっと)
Adding to this list, there are also 沃る and 率る. That would seem to be all of them.
Here are some Japanese pages listing two-mora verbs, shared by jogloran and sundowner:
憑依する is a correct word, but it is an intransitive verb that takes に. You have to say:
The ghost possessed Hanako.
(or 幽霊が if "A ghost ...")
When you want to rephrase this with 花子 as the subject, yes, it's okay to say:
Hanako was possessed by a ghost.
If you thought "Wait, passive voice of an intransitive ...
素敵ですね？ – Beautiful, isn't it?
素敵ですね – Oh, it's beautiful! (Something close to)
素敵です – It is beautiful. (Rather more formal and dry)
Note that 〜ね adds a gentle nuance to an expression or a sentence and somewhat appeals to the person listening.