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4

というの asks rhetorical questions (it's literally just と, 言う, and の). If your mom told you to keep studying for a long time you might say something like 死ぬまで勉強しろというのか "you want me to study until I die, is that it?!" Or, more literally "are you telling (言う) me to study until I die?!" As you can see it's a bit difficult to line up the tenses between the two ...


3

The core part of your question has been explained in detail in this question: When is Vている the continuation of action and when is it the continuation of state? 判明する is a "instant state change" (aka "punctual") verb. 判明する: It turns out / It will turn out 判明した: It turned out 判明している: It has been turned out = It is known (continuation of state) So 判明した refers ...


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By "volitional", I think I understand you to mean what are also called "will verbs" or "controllable verbs" in English, 意志動詞 in Japanese; and by "non-volitional", "non-will verbs" or "uncontrollable verbs", 無意志動詞 in Japanese? The term "volitional" here is possibly a bit confusing just given it is the name of a verb form, too, so I will just use "...


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