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6

know that 就{つ}くmeans “to be hired”. While that is not incorrect, I would rather suggest that you remember the meaning as "to assume a position". Why? Because while 「就く」 is in the active-voice form, "to be hired" is in the passive voice. The 「就く」 in the sentence: 「全員{ぜんいん}、守備{しゅび}に就{つ}くため走{はし}った。」 is not all that different in that it means: "...


3

下り坂を休まれちまった Regarding the 「を+休む」... It's "spatial を + intransitive 休む". The を is 移動の場所・時間の経過・動作の起点を示す『を』, and can be used with an intransitive verb. Here 下り坂を休む means "the horse takes a rest / saves energy while going down the slope". It's similar to 「下り坂で休む」 or 「下り坂のあいだに休む」. Related threads: Why does 出る accepts を although it is an intransitive ...


3

Yes, the verb is 付く【つく】, the same 付く as in 付いてくる. It has many meanings (jisho.org gives 14 definitions and デジタル大辞泉 gives 28), and one of the meanings is "to be settled/determined/resolved". Similar usages include: 勝負がつく 話がつく けりがつく 目途がつく 決着がつく 区別がつく 決心がつく 気持ちの整理がつく Unsurprisingly, the transitive equivalent つける means "to settle/determine/resolve". 勝負をつける ...


3

... grammar resources in Japanese also make an effort to distinguish 上一段 and 下一段 verbs as well. Why? At its most basic, //i// is not //e//. :) Digging deeper, there do appear to be subtle historical differences. For instance, many of the 下一段 verbs have corresponding root 五段 verbs, such as つける ↔ つく, or corresponding not-quite-root 五段 verbs, such as ひろめる ↔ ...


3

かぶる - base form かぶら - negative/irrealis/mizen form かぶらず - add the negation ず. ず is a way of negating a verb that is more old fashioned/formal/archaic. It's still used quite often though. Here is a link to an answer about ず: What is the difference between the negative forms -ず and -ぬ? As for the に, I suppose the simple answer is that 被る{かぶる} is ...


3

を marks a direct object. This is a noun that has something done to it. For example, it can be thrown, kicked, eaten, etc. Transitive verbs (verbs were something is done to something else) are what take を in this case. To become is a verb that does not take a direct object. It is an intransitive verb, meaning it happens on its own. In English, some ...


2

Both i-adjectives and na-adjectives conjugate in Japanese. The conjugation form that allows adjectives to modify verbs (and other adjectives) is called 「連用形{れんようけい}」 ("continuative form"). With na-adjectives, the 連用形 comes in the form 「〇〇に」, which means that you only need to change the final 「な」 to a 「に」. しずかな人{ひと} = "a quiet person" しずかに食{た}べる = "to ...


2

「アカネは菜食主義者{さいしょくしゅぎしゃ}だと言{い}っているが、魚{さかな}は食{た}べる。 それって、筋{すじ}が通{とお}るかな?」 1-Why it is used the てform of the verb 言う and not it's ますform? Because Akane has been saying it multiple times (in the past). 「言っている」, in this sentence, does not mean that she is saying it right now as in the present progressive. 「菜食主義者」 = "vegetarian" The writer/speaker could ...


1

先週のemailを送って頂きまして誠にありがとございました。大変、返し遅れて恐縮でございます。 I think this one is a bit awkward because of the formality. Between you and your friends, I don't think so many people make a fuss about 「返し遅れて」itself. According to the 「NWJCコーパス」, 「返し遅れて」 has 305 hits. I think the verb is used in the blogs, social networking services, etc. since it is used like「"コメント"...


1

As surmised in your question, and confirmed by user3856370 in the comment, 帰【かえ】る ("to return", intransitive") is a 五段【ごだん】 verb, and this is why たい needs that り before it. The grammar More specifically, the ~たい desiderative ("want to") ending attaches to the 連用形【れんようけい】, the continuative or stem form of the verb. This is sometimes called the "-masu stem" ...


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