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These Xとして and Xとする have essentially the same meaning, "to claim/say/report X". What does this としています express? Is this volitional +とする? The difference is that として is the te-form and とする is the attributive form (i.e., modifies the following noun as a relative clause). In other words, として in the first sentence is "..., claiming X", ...


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I would say it is mainly because of the context. If we look at https://dictionary.goo.ne.jp/word/%E3%81%A4%E3%81%A4/#jn-147598 : 二つの動作・作用が同時に並行して行われることを表す。それぞれが…して。…ながら。「諸事情を考慮しつつ計画を立てる」「大声で叫びつつ走りだす」 二つの動作・作用が矛盾して行われることを表す。…にもかかわらず。…ていても。「早起きが健康にいいと知りつつ、つい寝すごしてしまう」→つつも we might be tempted to conclude that つつも can only mean "although" and not &...


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As a standalone word, 償 is used to write a Japanese word つぐなう (償う) that means "pay for (a crime or damage)". 賠 could also be read つぐなう, but virtually unused outside reading Classical Chinese books (kanbun kundoku). As a part of Sino-Japanese compounds, 賠【ばい】 and 償【しょう】 have different connotations. 賠 means "pay money for damage or harm", ...


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