19

貧乏 is a Sino-Japanese word (kango), and it only refers to financial poorness. It's an easy word, but it can sound somewhat direct and rude. In formal or academic contexts, 貧困 ("poverty") is mainly used. 貧しい is a native Japanese word (wago), and it can refer to not only financial poorness but also various kinds of poorness. For example you can say 心が貧しい人 ("...


18

It's just that 友人 is more formal than 友達. I don't feel there is any difference in what they refer to. For example, saying 「友人が会社を経営していまして。。。」 in a job interview would sound natural, but saying「友達が会社を経営していまして。。。」 sounds a bit childish. Conversely, 「ずっと友人でいような!」is weird but 「ずっと友達でいような!」 is natural.


17

女性 means female (*for humans). (lit. the female kind; Cf. 男性 male / 中性 neuter) 女の人 means woman. 女の子 means girl. 女性 is a 漢語 (Chinese-origin word) which is often more formal. 女の人 is 和語(Japanese original word).


15

Simply, 一番 is colloquial/casual, and 最も is formal/technical. Oh, this is one of the rare cases where 漢語 words are more informal than the 和語 versions. In addition, 最も can only function as a modifier, while 一番 can work as a noun which means number one. 私が一番だ。: OK 私が最もだ。: NG


12

石【いし】: stone, typically of a few centimeters in size 岩【いわ】: rock, typically of a few meters or more in size 岩石【がんせき】: stones and rocks. Another important difference is that, as a Sino-Japanese word, 岩石 sounds technical, and used as an academic term for rock in general. In everyday conversations, 石 and 岩 are commonly used.


11

According to Japanese dictionary, although it is written about various things in detail, I have an image like an attached file. In short, "石" is small, 岩 and 岩石 are big. Hope it helps.


11

友人 is more formal than 友達. I think this formality results in the side effect of it suggesting a closer friendship, because one would usually not refer to someone as a friend in Japanese in a serious conversation if they were not close, in my opinion. So no, they are not identical — there are situations where one makes more sense to use than the other — but ...


10

I think there's definitely lots of truth in that tendency. 漢語 was essentially the Latin of Japan for a long time; i.e the language of the elites. In fact, Chinese poetry is still compulsory in Japanese education, a bit like Latin I guess. Because of this history, 漢語 is associated with art, science, government etc. and is thus generally more formal.


10

Muryou is more formal and literally means free in the sense of "no charges apply". In your case case muryou is better, as it is less ambiguous. "Tada" also carries the meaning of "only" / "just" and esp if you say "tada no chattosaito" one would more likely interpret it as "this is just a chat site [in the sense if the above sentence continued as "...., not ...


9

I would say there is no difference, at least in everyday language. Maybe 速さ has a slightly more casual feel to it... at least I see more myself using 速さ than 速度 in a daily conversation. Now, 速度 is velocity and 速さ speed. That means that in the field of physics, they are indeed different, namely: velocity is a vector, including not only a value but a ...


9

The Sino-Japanese word (kango) that directly corresponds to 禁煙 is 喫煙【きつえん】 (喫 = "take and enjoy"), which is a suru-verb that can be found in stiff situations including statistical or medical contexts. (We say 禁煙 but not 禁喫煙 for this reason.) On the other hand, (たばこを)吸う is a wago which is commonly used in casual day-to-day situations. English speakers happen ...


7

If you are familiar with the general difference between on-readings (音読み) and kun-readings (訓読み), you already know the basic difference between 形【かたち】 (kun) and 形状【けいじょう】 (on). 形 is used in informal conversations/writings and most of formal conversations, while 形状 is preferred in formal written texts or scientific articles. Usually Japanese children learn 形【...


7

The Sino-Japanese 発汗{はっかん}する 'perspire' sounds more like a formal, technical term, like you might find in a medical context. It isn't particularly common in normal speech. Imagine saying this in English: Man, I just ran five miles! I perspired so much! Sounds pretty silly, right? The first sentence sounds like casual English, but then I use the ...


7

Although Sino-Japanese words (aka kango) are technically loanwords, they have been an integral part of the Japanese vocabulary for more than 1000 years. Practically speaking, it's almost impossible to avoid all of them. Some very common kango which have no easy wago equivalent include: 百, 千, 万, ... hundred, thousand, ten thousand... 学校 school 日本語 Japanese (...


6

First of all, if a word contains both kanji and hiragana, it's very likely to be wago. (E.g. 食べる、美しい、…) If the word consists of kanji only, like you said counting the number of syllables is a good approach. (Of course, on'yomi are to be one syllable, so long vowels, like リョウ, and endings like ク、ン、ツ、チ pass as one syllable, even if the reading is two morae.) ...


6

They are, in Japanese term, all subcategories of 笑い, the widest word that covers both loud laugh (giggle, chuckle etc.) and silent smile (grin, smirk, simper etc.) 笑み/笑顔 The two words are related to every kind of silent happy face (abovementioned). 笑み is the action itself (< verb 笑む), but is a bookish word that hardly appears in conversation. 笑顔 is more ...


6

While 漢語 is more formal/technical/academic than the 和語 equivalent in most cases, there are a few exceptions. 一番 (kango) is less formal/academic than 最も (wago). 喧嘩 (kango) is less formal than 争い (wago). 本当に (kango) is less formal/polite than 誠に (wago) in greetings. I think the number of such exceptions is very small. I understand these may not be good ...


6

In general, 新規 means older one does not exist. マツダは、このたび、デミオに、新規にディーゼル車を追加した。 At this time, Mazda introduced diesel engine model to Demio(MX3). This is correct. Because Demio never has diesel engine model until that time. If Demio had diesel engine model, above description is not correct. 彼は、新しいクルマに買い換えることに決めた。 He made up his mind to ...


6

I'll leave any definitive answers to our native speakers, but rather than formal–informal I've started to think that maybe poetic–prosaic might be a more apt duality. (And formality usually implies little poeticality.) One other example where both readings are common is 竹林 with チクリン being "prosaic" and たけばやし being poetic.


6

It depends on the context. さくじつ and きのう both mean yesterday (and the same Kanji 昨日 is used for the words). A major difference in their usage is that さくじつ is almost always used in a formal context (written and spoken), while きのう is often used both in formal and informal contexts (written and spoken): Using さくじつ in a casual conversation seems weird. You can ...


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