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18

やっぱり is a colloquial/casual version of やはり. やっぱり/やはり has several meanings/usages. For example... "as expected; as (one) would expect" やはりそれは本当だった。It was true, just as I thought/expected/imagined. 「犯人は彼だった。」「やっぱりね。」"He was the criminal." "Just as I thought/suspected. ⇒ That's what I thought. / I knew it." やっぱり言ったとおりだろう。That's exactly what I ...


14

的 makes 世界 into a 形容動詞 ("na-adjective"), which, when functioning as adverb, turns into ~的に. ~的では is simply ungrammatical.


14

Comparing ぜひ来てくださいね。 きっと来てくださいね。 ぜひ expresses a hope/wish, whereas きっと expresses an expectation. (必ず would express obligation.) A teacher telling his students "きっと来てくださいね" means more like "I am expecting everyone to come". Thus きっと feels stronger (it's an expectation, after all), but may just mean that whoever is inviting really wants you to come. ...


13

I looked the at the use of 感じる a few months ago. I came to the following conclusions: The verb is usually transitive (他動詞) ; it takes を with a noun (including embedded noun phrases with の)but It can also be intransitive (自動詞): Space ALC list it as both and give the example ~が退屈に感じる (feel bored [uninspired]). It can also take と to mark a "...


13

This is either a typo or a "reado". Trying to reconstruct the original sentence from your rōmaji version, I'm guessing it is 茂作の顔に息をフーッと吹きかけた フーッと is listed in some dictionaries (e.g. WWWJDIC) ふーっと フーッと (adv,on-mim) with a whiff; with a puff The ッ is small (compare ッ and ツ) and is geminating the following "t" sound. You're correct in ...


12

Here 大変 is used as a na-adjective. It's definition #3 in 研究社新和英中辞典: たいへん = "〈労力を要すること〉 a hard task; a difficult job." 仕事は大変だけど元気だよー She's saying her job is hard/tough and/or busy, but she's fine/healthy.


12

It's 結果構文 (Resultative Construction). The continuative form of an adjective (甘く here) represents the resultant state caused by the action (煮る). So 甘く煮る means "to boil/cook/stew and make sweet" (≂ 煮て甘くする), or "to boil/cook/stew in such a way that it will become sweet, by adding sugar" (≂ (砂糖で)甘くなるように煮る), i.e. "boil with sugar". Like in this phrase, I think ...


12

No, you cannot attach です to an adverb. But 初めて is both an adverb and no-adjective. (A no-adjective is a special type of noun that is semantically similar to an English adjective. See this question.) You can confirm this fact in jisho.org's entry. For example, you can say 初めてのアメリカ, which means "(my) first (trip to) America". (Similar things happen all the ...


11

Terminology First of all some remarks on the terminology used. Adverb (副詞) is the usual definition as it can be found in dictionaries. The other two words require some more thought. It seems 時相名詞 is a technical term used by jumandic, a dictionary for morphological parsers. Here's the only insight I could find: EDRは時詞という名前で、JUMANは時相名詞という名前で、...


11

「たぶん」は、英語の maybe よりずっと可能性が高いと思います。「たぶん」は probably に近いと思います。70~80%くらいの確率(あるいは90%?)かな?と思います。 明鏡国語辞典によると・・・ たぶん【多分】 二 〘副詞〙 《多く下に推量を表す語を伴って》断定はできないが、そうである可能性が高いという話‌​し手の気持ちを表す。おそらく。おおかた。たいてい。 "Will you marry me?" に "Maybe." と返事されたら普通はがっかりしますけど、「結婚してくれる?」に「たぶん。」と言われたらそんなにがっかりしない(どちらかというと嬉しい)と思います。 「たぶん治ります。」と言われた病気が、実は治る可能性は50%だった…とかだったら、きっと怒ってしまいます。...


10

『中上級を教える人のための日本語文法ハンドブック』 explains the expression 不運にも on p. 382 as a sentence adverb (文副詞). Some adjectives like 不運な, 幸運な, 意外な, 皮肉な, 勇敢な, 卑怯な, etc. can take も after their conjuntive form to add some evaluation, criticism, or commentary of speaker to the whole sentence. For example, the sentense 意外にも、彼は集会に現れた。 (Surprisingly, he showed up to the assembly....


10

The first two are used in contexts like: "do it properly." ちゃんと手を洗ってください きちんと部屋を掃除してください。 To me, it seems that きちんと implies more concentration/involvement. The result is cleaner, more polished. Thus, ちゃんとできた would be "I did it as required", while きちんとできた would be "Not only did I do it as required, but I also paid attention to every detail." The ...


10

[大]{だい}[好]{す}き and [大]{だい}[嫌]{きら}い are somewhat special in that sense. Both 大{だい} and 大{おお} can be used with other words, but usually 大{おお} goes with 訓{くん}読{よ}み words and 大{だい} with 音{おん}読{よ}み words: [大]{だい}[問]{もん}[題]{だい} serious problem 大{おお}急{いそ}ぎ pressing, urgent One exception would be 大{おお}掃{そう}除{じ}. Prefixing おお or だい, however, only ...


10

Since no-one else has tried to answer, I'll write up a few thoughts in the hope of attracting a more knowledgeable person, Somebody Is Wrong On The Internet style. I do not think there is any single, universally accepted name for this form. Sometimes you see the term "ri adverb" (in Japanese, "り副詞"), but this often encompasses 3-mora adverbs too (yahari as ...


9

これから is saying "after this", as in, after the activity or thing you are doing right then. If you're having a coffee with a friend, you're talking about what you'd do after coffee. いまから is saying "from now", as in, after this moment of time. If you just bumped into a friend on the street, you're talking about what you're going to do soon in terms of time, ...


9

「頭{あたま}で覚{おぼ}えたことは、忘{わす}れやすく動{うご}きに時間{じかん}がかかるという特徴{とくちょう}があります。」 = 「頭で覚えたことは、忘れやすく、動きに時間がかかるという特徴があります。」 The basic structure of this sentence is: 頭で覚えたこと has two characteristics. #1 is 忘れやすい and #2, 動きに時間がかかる. Judging from your comments and final translation, you did not grasp this structure correctly. Next, 忘れやすく is an adverb that is from an ...


9

普段 means "usually" in a daily life context. 通常 means "normal", as in the absence of a non-normal situation, especially in a formal context. They can roughly mean the same thing, e.g. if you say 普段はこの道を通ります or 通常はこの道を通ります, it both means you usually/normally take this route. However, for example you can say 大統領のパレードは通常この道を通ります but not 大統領のパレードは普段この道を通ります ...


9

The most prevalent meaning of this word today that you should learn is "...at all?" to emphasize the depth of doubt in question, although it's quite distant from its etymology. はたし‐て【果(た)して】 3 (下に疑問を表す語を伴って)いったい。「果たして誰が栄冠を手にするか」 果たして……兄さんがやってのけるのか Does my brother dare to do such ... at all? Could my brother really dare to do such ... ?


9

While "as expected" is surely one of the meanings of 「果{は}たして」, it would not work in this context vey well. That meaning works only in a clear and declarative statement describing the expected result of an event. The sentence in question, as its ending would indicate, talks about the speaker's uncertainty regarding the outcome of his brother's action. It ...


9

The children rotated/turned the bowl so that it looked pretty/nice to their mother, with the (hand) painted design/motif ([模様]{もよう}/[柄]{がら}) facing her (i.e. so that the front of the bowl faced her). 例えば、こんな感じで…


9

I don't know what ぞんぞん means. (I'm from Kansai, by the way.) (In the article you found, they say ぞんぞんする means ぞくぞくする in 土佐 dialect.) The correct answer is どんどん. どんどん can mean not only "rapidly" "steadily" but also "one after another" "do...more (and more)" "do...a lot" "keep on doing" "continuously" etc. どんどん食べてください。 "Eat a lot." "Eat more."


9

Can adverbs modify adjectives? Yes. That's part of what adverbs do. Consider: [と]{●}[て]{●}[も]{●}赤【あか】い車【くるま】 a very red car [ま]{●}[ぶ]{●}[し]{●}[く]{●}明【あか】るい青空【あおぞら】 a dazzlingly bright blue sky Is 大きく modifying 厳しい? No. At least, not directly. In your sample sentence, as you correctly parsed it, the 大【おお】きく is not being used as a direct modifier on ...


8

Both きっと and さぞ are adverbs of epistemic modality (which means they express a type of uncertainty), but they're different in a number of ways: Level of certainty. きっと is more certain than さぞ. Frequency. きっと is significantly more common than さぞ. Register. きっと is normal in conversation. I've been told by more than one native speaker that さぞ sounds ...


8

That なにも is a Guiding Adverb that leads partial negation. It means nothing by itself but functions as a sign that tells that partial negation is following. It's different from normal なに+も ((not) anything) in the point of pitch accent. [なにも{HLL} vs なに{LH}+も{H}] e.g. 何も、急がなくてもいいじゃないか You don't need to hurry, do you? Other examples of Guiding Adverbs are もし(...


8

"大声で" isn't an adverb, but rather a noun followed by the particle で, which indicates the means by which something is done. The difference is like the English "There was even a person who was singing in a loud voice while climbing the mountain" vs. "There was even a person who was singing loudly while climbing the mountain". "大声で" is better thought of as the ...


8

I think you have a number of things confused: True, adverbs can't be subjects. But 寂しく isn't an adverb, it's the -く form of an adjective, called the 連用形 in Japanese grammar. And は isn't a subject marker. It doesn't show any particular syntactic relationship; it can be placed on subjects, objects, or other things. It can even follow adverbs, although that'...


7

たくさん means that the quantity is large: “many,” “much,” and “a lot.” As Ignacio Vazquez-Abrams said, いっぱい means “full,” but いっぱい is colloquially also used to mean the same thing as たくさん. (In child-speak, they also mean that the degree is high: 今日は(いっぱい/たくさん)遊んだね (you played a lot today).) Adverb よく does not mean that the quantity is large. It means: very ...


7

This is an interesting topic but I think the question could stand to be a bit more focused. I will throw out an answer in an attempt to inspire other people to dig up better info and perhaps the OP to make the question more specific and answerable. So "what is happening", in general terms to avoid specific theoretical assumptions: In certain kinds of ...


7

Suru is active and implies somebody does something, but naru is passive and implies something happens. For example: 暖かくする / atatakaku suru = make it warm 暖かくなる / atatakaku naru = get warm.


7

I believe you are making the mistake of attempting to replicate an English pattern in Japanese. As snailboat points out, the idiomatic equivalent is as follows: 泥棒はいつまでたっても泥棒。/三つ子の魂百まで。/性格を変えることはできない。 And if you make this search, http://eow.alc.co.jp/search?q=Once+a+always+a one finds that the nearest Japanese equivalent seems to be: noun phrase ...


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