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21

逃げたくなった is: 逃げる = "to flee", in its stem form (連用形) → 逃げ ~たい = the suffix that expresses wanting to do, conjugated to ~たく (again, the 連用形) なる = "to become", in past tense → なった So this means something to the effect of "it became the case that he wanted to get away". For the sentence as a whole, I would offer a translation like "he began to want to get ...


18

@snailplane introduced this interesting article to me! 山下 好孝. テンスの「た」とアスペクトの「た」 (PDF) 初級日本語教科書では「~ましたか」の質問に対して,「~ていません」と答えるのを初級の学習者に導入する時は、「もう」と「まだ」を教える時である。(略) しかし、実際は、去年のことやもっと昔のことを開いても、「~ていません」「~てないです」という答え方をする人もいる。 The result of a survey in this article shows native speakers' preference between ~ていません and ~ませんでした in various situations. The result of ...


14

The quoting particle と (or って) is tenseless, just as the quotation marks " for direct speech (she said "I want to sing"), or that for indirect speech (she said that she wanted to sing) are tenseless. The tense is reflected in the verb that is used with the quoting particle, e.g. ~といいました ~といった ~といっています In your example sentence, the correct tense for ...


13

「〜いる」 primer Japanese is honestly far more simple than English when it comes to aspect. In Japanese, the rule is that 「〜いる」 means you are currently (or will be) in some state related to the verb, while 「〜いた」 means you had been in some state related to the verb. There are many such states: The state of doing something (progressive). The state of regularly ...


13

Finally I found an explanation that possibly answers at least your original question. This usage of "past tense" is called 発見の「た」 (ta for discovery) or ムードの「た」 (modal ta). Most articles about this are written in Japanese, but here's an article written in English: Another Function of the Ta-form: Discovery and Recall In a nutshell, my understanding is that ...


12

You have actually picked two good examples to explain an odd corner of Japanese. 〜と思う and 〜ことにする both are "state-change" verbs regarding things that happen in people's heads. These sorts of verbs have rules. 〜と思う Plain: State-change (私は)ジョンが大丈夫だと思う。 Lit. "I just had the thought that Jon is okay." "I think that Jon is okay." 〜ている: Stative (私は)...


11

This is definitely not unusual: verbs often switch tenses in the middle of Japanese narratives for effect. I don't have a definitive reference to back this up, but I'll try to explain the general concept as best I understand it. If I remember correctly, the past tense often has more emphasis in a Japanese narrative than the present tense. For example, ...


11

1. [[HPバーの名]で呼ばれる] [青いそれ] I can't really say for sure about "――" without more context. My guess is that 横線 is being pulled out to make it clear that it's the term being explained (maybe it's part of a list?). The technical terms in my translation might be off, but this should give you the feel: The Horizontal Line -- that blue thing which goes by the ...


11

As for your broken TV, all sentences are correct and are emphasizing different aspects of your problem. Let me give some loose translations and try to illustrate the differences. テレビが壊れているから、見られないんです。 My TV is broken, so I can't watch TV. The progressive tense emphasizes the ongoing state of "being broken". You intend to repair your TV, but in the ...


10

tl;dr 入る hairu is a consonant-stem verb, i.e. hair·u. Long version Besides a handful of exceptions, there are two type of verbs vowel-stem verbs (-e·ru, -i·ru) consonant-stem verbs (-k·u, -g·u, -s·u, -t·u, -n·u, -(w)·u, -m·u, -r·u) where I have used an interpunct · to separate the stem from the ending (and the hyphen - means there is more coming before ...


9

I think that どうしてわかったのですか and どうしてわかるのですか correspond to “How did you know” and “How do you know” in the way you described. どうして知っていましたか and どうして知っていますか do not sound right, but I am not sure why. Unlike どうしてわかるのですか, どうして知っているのですか (Why do you have that knowledge?) implies that the assertion is correct. どうして知っていたのですか (Why did you have that knowledge?) also ...


9

You can, but the meaning will change. Basically, you can use 辞書形 (dictionary), た形 (perfective), 可能形 (potential) verb phrases, and of course all of their negative forms, to modify a noun. 【辞書形】飛ぶ{とぶ}豚{ぶた} a pig that will fly 【た形】飛んだ豚 a pig that flew 【可能形】飛べる豚 a pig that can fly A lot of other derivatives work too: 【〜いる】飛んでいる豚 a pig that is flying 【〜しまう】...


9

This た doesn't mean "past" but "completion". It isn't unnatural that た which means "completion" is used in things in the future. So 明日は、朝ご飯を食べた後、学校に行く is correct.


9

Yes, 疲れそう means "It looks tiresome" rather than "You look tired". To say "You look tired", you can say 疲れていそう or 疲れてそう using the subsidiary verb いる. Other ways to say similar things are 「お疲れですか」, 「疲れているようですね」, 「疲れて(い)るみたいですね」, and 「疲れてる?」 疲れたそう(だ) means something like "They say he/she got tired," because this そう follows the dictionary form of the auxiliary ...


9

Yes you can use みたい after the past tense of a verb, but the copula after みたい does not have to be in the past tense. 昨日、雨が降ったみたいです。 (Looking at the ground) It seems like it rained yesterday. 昨日、雨が降ったみたいでした。 (Recalling the appearance of the ground I saw this morning) It seemed like it had rained yesterday. 雨が降りそうです。 (Looking at the sky) It ...


8

〜ている can indicate a completed-action state, not just in-progress actions. 結婚している → is (currently) married 開いているお店 → a store that is open 太っている → is fat To disambiguate these states from in-progress, you can use 〜つつある for "happening right now". I've mentioned this in another thread, but don't remember which one at the momemt (will update later ...


8

Assuming "I" as the subject, The latter sentence, 会社をやめたかもしれません, means "I may have quit my company." simply because やめた is the ta-form (past tense) of やめる. Such a sentence is uncommon, but can be used: When you have no idea what you actually did in the past, and you are really not sure whether you quit your company or you are still employed. When you ...


8

疲れる is not an unusual verbal, so there is no need to identify verbals like it. Rather, understanding how Japanese expressions tend to be expressions of changes of state will help with interpreting this and similar future encounters with perfective ("past") forms. 1) Why is 疲れた used to indicate a present state? (Is there a logic behind these types of verbs ...


8

Part of the confusion appears to arise from the fact that your two "sentences" are actually incomplete. 私の友達は綺麗な人 私の友達は綺麗だった人 These are fragments: they are only phrases, not full sentences. They could end in the copula (だ for plain-form familiar speech, です for polite speech), or they could end in something completely different: 私の友達は綺麗な人 [をかみ殺して食べる。] - ...


7

The same reason that in English you can say 'like you say'. If someone says 'I had maabou doufu last night and it was amazingly delicious', and some time later you decide to try it yourself and agree, you might tell them 「君の言ったとおりだ」. 'It's just like you told me (some time ago)' - you're referring to a specific instance of them telling you. If you're both ...


7

I think this is a bit tricky. In short: you are getting it right, but in this particular example he doesn't necessarily think it is no longer interesting: his comment was probably made on something that had finished earlier. There's no tense agreement in Japanese, so we can think of these two pairs Robert さんはおもしろいといっています。 -> Robert さんはおもしろいといっていました。 ...


7

In this case past tense 見た人 is correct and it's irrelevant if it's a person or an inanimate object. But there are more points to be careful about in your sentence: no need to use に after the 昨日 いる is a state verb, so it should be ここにいる (instead of ここで) also no need for に after 今日, in fact you would want to stress the fact it happens again, so も fits here ...


7

ていた doesn't mean anything on itself, because it's a part of conjugation: 晴れる{はれる} - the verb - which means roughly "to become clear" (as in clear weather). 晴れて{はれて} - verb's te-form て+いる - a grammar form for continuous action て+いた - continuous action in the past Combined, 晴れていた means "it was sunny" or "the skies were clear".


7

The real lie is in the assumption that the Japanese language is genetically related to Chinese. There is long cultural contact, and heavy lexical/morphological borrowing, but the underlying structures of the two languages remain distinct. To answer your question, we need to first define tense and aspect. Tense is a morphological change in verbs to denote ...


7

First of all, you're translating 取材 as "interview" in your question, but it's actually a much broader word than that. It refers to the whole process of gathering information for a report or article, so it basically encompasses everything the writer describes doing in the rest of the text - interviewing and interviewing hundreds of actual parents, talking to ...


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