They are semantically different.
Xに我慢する means "to put up with X" (i.e., you hate X). Xに耐える is more common.
Xを我慢する means "to put up with the lack of X", "to hold off on X", "to try to refrain from X" (i.e., you want X).
In most situations, including ordinary business exchanges, they are completely interchangeable. Maybe 半 is a bit more common in casual conversations simply because it's easier to pronounce, but saying 30分 is always safe.
30分 is preferred in formal written text and technical contexts where consistency and clarity is important, but I guess "half past 3&...
Although the words you listed are all semantically related, they each have quite distinct grammatical roles in the typical usage (with little overlapping) that you never want to miss.
As function words: 自分/己 vs 自身/自ら vs 自己 (vs 自)
自分 is a standalone pronoun that substitutes the same referent (noun) that appears in the context. While it certainly can be ...
Using 悪くならない for food is a stable choice that means "don't spoil". But just in case, it is not an exact replacement for 日持ち, as the word is a noun "capacity of lasting long" (no derived verb or adjective usage). What replaces 悪くならない as a whole is 日持ちが良い or 日持ち（が）する.
悪くならない保存料 would mean "preservative that doesn't let (food) spoil&...
You still need to use さん. Failing to do so would usually make you look like a two-faced person. In general, you should not change the way you refer to someone by name based on whether he/she is present. Well, actually, people sometimes drop さん intentionally when they speak ill of someone, for example, but let's not do this while you are a beginner :)
As an ...
All Japanese quantifiers are adverbs. 全部 is an adverb too, meaning "wholly" or "entirely". That means, it is true that it can be ambiguous like "Are the windows all shut?" between "all windows" and "completely". That said, the "all of" reading usually prevails, and also the most common way to say &...
I think you have already listed all of the common and not-so-common ones.
あ い う
ア イ ウ
一 二 三
イ ロ ハ (usually katakana)
甲 乙 丙 (explained here)
1 2 3 / A B C / a b c / I II III / i ii iii
These letters are often enclosed in parentheses or circles.
イロハ is still widely used in legal documents, dictionaries and such. It's at least much more common than 甲乙丙. You ...
This might not be the most complete answer, but I might be able to give a general picture for what they are used for. I'll give a summary of what I have read, mostly which comes from goo.ne.
自分 - This refers to the "self" in both the concrete and the abstract. For example 「自分の体」refers to your physical body. 「自分の考え」is also perfectly valid.
they prefer using a passive voice
It's not that we prefer passive voice but the speaker being the subject of the sentence rather than the third party. (Animacy hierarchy) Anyway, it's true that those example sentences are natural in this regard.
Is my correction (the second sentence) better?
My answers to your questions are as follows:
God knows. I can't speak for the author. They may have wanted to avoid repetition out of personal preference, may have been just following the house style (if there was any), or may have just written it that way without thinking about it at all. What I can say, however, is that they definitely could do it and ...
Unless you want a very strict analysis on the differences of the two, it seems to me that both mean almost the same thing when used to mean "let alone". もちろん is used more often in speech while もとより sounds more formal/stiff and can also be used in written texts/書き言葉.
A simple google search of the difference seems to agree that the two are pretty ...