Why are there so many terms for these generic words?
Most of them have different meanings. Some are used for Western royalty, some are used for Chinese royalty.
王 - (in general) King e.g. アーサー王 King Arthur
王 - (in historical China and historical Asia) One of the titles of the lords in the Imperial China, or the King of the Imperial Chinese tributary state
未来 and 将来 are pretty similar to each other. 大辞泉 breaks down the differences under the 用法 section of 「将来」 entry (explanation translated):
将来 and 未来 can both be used in situations where you're talking about
the time that will come after the present, e.g. 「将来（未来）への夢」 ("dreams
for the future") and 「明るい将来（未来）」 ("a bright future"). 「未来」 cannot be
All what you've mentioned above are common words.
Despite being synonyms, each of those words has different shades of meaning even when refers to the same object. I could roughly group them into several clusters as follows:
道具 / 器具
They lay stress on direct human manipulation, typically fulfill their purposes by (wholly or partially) being handled freely ...
My guess is that ''furansugo'' is used in normal speech whereas ''futsugo'' is only used in very formal speech.
You're on the right track. Nowadays the only European language called by its kanji name in speech is 英語. I'd say that it's rather inevitable because if you say イギリス語 it'd sound like "British English".
So, virtually nobody use 仏語【ふつご】 instead of ...
火事 means "fire" like what you shout when a building is burning down. Or when we say "my house was lost in a fire", it's that "fire". The big kind that burns things it isn't supposed to.
火 is a more generic word for fire. It's what's on a candle or a torch or in a fireplace.
For your first sentence...it depends on if the fire is burning down your room(火事),...
本日 is keigo. You will hear this on a train or airplane, or in a store. But you won't be saying it yourself, unless if you as a beginning student are put in the unlikely position of making an official announcement to someone.
今日 is what you would use in ordinary situations.
You're right that 触れる can be used metaphorically, but 触る is normally reserved for physical touch only.
触る generally indicates a stronger, more intentional kind of "touch" than 触れる. From the other perspective, 触れる is often used to convey a sense of gentle or light touching, or even "brushing against" something.
Note that it's possible to use the particle を ...
I was always taught that 将来【しょうらい】 was a more "tangible" future (like 5 years in the future, 10 years in the future, etc.), whereas 未来【みらい】 was more "intagible", "unknown", and "fantastical" (like "In the future, people will inhabit the moon"; like how people of the 50's thought life in 2000 would be).
I've never heard of 行【ゆ】く末【すえ】 until now, but it seems ...
The dictionary is unfortunately vague on this matter, but some discussion elsewhere on the web lends some clues to the nuance. These discussions say that やってくる, as you suggest, places more emphasis on the act of coming, but especially that the traveler came with some particular effort or purpose, or from especially far away.
From the second link:
天気 (1-3 days): You'll hear 天気 used the most, as in 天気予報 weather forecast or 天気はいいですか Is the weather good today? You should almost always translate 天気 as "weather" in English.
天候 (2-10 days): 天候 refers to the overall state of the atmosphere between a few days to about 10 days. Its use isn't that common, however, in casual conversation it shows up in the ...
You guessed it. 大辞林 has
i.e. a shop selling consumer goods. E.g. a clothes shop:
i.e. a stand selling things.
In particular, a small stand/shop in hospitals, theatres, amusement parks or other facilities. E.g. a 売店 in a train station:
In other words, a 商店's main business comes from their goods; a 売店's ...
クマネズミ属｛ぞく｝ is the Rattus genus, to which all "true" rats belong, whereas Mice belong to the ハツカネズミ属, or Mus genus. These genera are both subgroups to the sub-family ネズミ亜科｛あか｝, or Murinae.
Now, these are the scientific names, and luckily, in contrast to English, these scientific names are based on Japanese words, so they do make sense for common people. If ...
The best way is to look each of these terms up individually in Japanese language dictionaries and check examples of usage, but here's a translated synopsis. Many of these meanings overlap.
でも: "though that may be the case" / (though the prior statement may be true)
しかし: "in contrast to the previous statement" / (lit. "unlike" the prior statement)
ただし: is ...
An excerpt from 広辞苑's definition for 鉄拳:
In short, こぶし means fist, while 鉄拳 means more specifically a tightly clenched fist. This should come as no surprise to you, as you've already looked it up in dictionaries which say so.
It's true that it literally means "iron fist", but it isn't generally used for its literal meaning. ...
欲求 is a fairly objective / scientific word which is seen in psychological / sociological articles.
欲望 is kind of earthly by far, often meaning a lust toward money, fame, domination, possessions, and sexual actions.
While the above two are used mostly in writings, 欲 is by much a conversational word, and has a range of various usages.
欲念 is rare. I believe ...
チケット: Tickets for theaters, amusement parks, sport games, etc.
切符: Tickets in general used for trains, buses, etc.
乗車券: An official term used by railway companies for a type of 切符. 乗車券 refers to a basic fare ticket whose price is calculated based on the travel distance. You may additionally need other types of 切符 such as 特急券 ("limited express train ticket").
"What is 学校" is not an easy question; there are many definitions of it. but here's the summary:
Legally speaking, "the narrow definition" of 学校 (aka 一条校), as defined in the first clause of the law called 学校教育法, includes public and private 小学校, 中学校, 高校, 大学, and so on. And it also does include kindergartens (!) but does not include so-called 大学校.
変更 specifically refers to a human-caused update/modification of a plan, project, document, destination, etc. 変化 refers to change in general.
As suru-verbs, 変更する is transitive, and 変化する is intransitive.
For example, you can say 季節の変化 but not 季節の変更. You can say 計画を変更する but not 計画を変化する.
Literally they should roughly mean:
将来 - That which is about to come
未来 - That which has not yet come
This corresponds to the other answers here that indicates that 将来 is a more "tangible" future and 未来 being "intangible". Because for 将来 its path is approaching you. Compare with 未来 which isn't approaching you, in fact its kanji indicates that it will not ...
My non-native intuition, with examples stolen/adapted from alc:
済む means "to complete", in the sense that its negative implies that there are things lacking, or things yet to do/happen. Perhaps 済んだ has the sense of "over and done with", and has a slight feeling of relief about it. 済まない means "it is not finished", and implies that the speaker feels a sense ...
First, I want to give my personal impression. (Keep in mind that I'm just learning Japanese, so I have less experiences to call on than some other people! But I think perhaps I've seen enough Japanese to give an impression worth sharing, nonetheless.)
My impression is that 字引 is just another word for dictionary, but that it's quite a lot less common. The ...
胃: A digestive organ located between the esophagus and the duodenum. English "stomach" refers to both this specific organ and the abdomen, but you should make clear distinction in Japanese.
胃袋: A more casual word for 胃. Not used in formal/medical documents.
お腹: Abdomen. Sounds more mild and politer than 腹.
腹部【ふくぶ】: Abdominal area. (formal and/or ...
I am a native speaker of Japanese.
Your question is very interesting.
Your recognition of 成熟 is more or less correct. We usually use 熟成 for food. It reminds me of good food which is taken a long time to deepen the taste. 熟成 cannot use for people.
成熟した: Grown up, matured
熟成した: The taste deeply brought out (sometimes with a enzyme)
I don't think that 駄目 and 悪い are very similar (at least as far as I know), so I've included いけない as I think there is some overlap between the three.
On the end of verbs:
行っては駄目/行ってはいけない = "you must not go" (or sometimes translated as "it will be bad if you go")
(行っては悪い isn't used as far as I know.)
By themselves, plain present as an exclamation:...
What is the difference between 詰まらない and 詰らない?
As the comment indicates, it is possible that the first is tumaranai while the second is naziranai, the negative of the verb nazir-. While this is technically possible, it is not so simple. First, the kanzi for nazir- is not so common and few people will be able to read it. Second, tumaranai may be written as ...