16

All what you've mentioned above are common words. Despite being synonyms, each of those words has different shades of meaning even when refers to the same object. I could roughly group them into several clusters as follows: 道具 / 器具 They lay stress on direct human manipulation, typically fulfill their purposes by (wholly or partially) being handled freely ...


16

My guess is that ''furansugo'' is used in normal speech whereas ''futsugo'' is only used in very formal speech. You're on the right track. Nowadays the only European language called by its kanji name in speech is 英語. I'd say that it's rather inevitable because if you say イギリス語 it'd sound like "British English". So, virtually nobody use 仏語【ふつご】 instead of ...


15

The differences come from the fact that: 「名前{なまえ}」 is an originally Japanese word while 「名称{めいしょう}」 is a Sino-loanword. Formality: For the reason above, 「名称」 is more formal, academic and technical than 「名前」. Think about "chat" vs "conversation", "deep" vs. "profound", etc. in English. In both Japanese and English, the big words have mostly come from "...


14

天気 (1-3 days): You'll hear 天気 used the most, as in 天気予報 weather forecast or 天気はいいですか Is the weather good today? You should almost always translate 天気 as "weather" in English. 天候 (2-10 days): 天候 refers to the overall state of the atmosphere between a few days to about 10 days. Its use isn't that common, however, in casual conversation it shows up in the ...


13

チケット: Tickets for theaters, amusement parks, sport games, etc. 切符: Tickets in general used for trains, buses, etc. 乗車券: An official term used by railway companies for a type of 切符. 乗車券 refers to a basic fare ticket whose price is calculated based on the travel distance. You may additionally need other types of 切符 such as 特急券 ("limited express train ticket"). ...


12

クマネズミ属{ぞく} is the Rattus genus, to which all "true" rats belong, whereas Mice belong to the ハツカネズミ属, or Mus genus. These genera are both subgroups to the sub-family ネズミ亜科{あか}, or Murinae. Now, these are the scientific names, and luckily, in contrast to English, these scientific names are based on Japanese words, so they do make sense for common people. If ...


11

There is a clear difference (no pun intended) between 日本酒 and 清酒. The clue is in the kanji 「清」 = "clear". Technically speaking, 清酒 is one of the two main types of 日本酒 --- 1) 清酒 and 2) にごり[酒]{ざけ}. The former is refined and colorless and the latter, unrefined and cloudy. Informally, however, quite a few native speakers use 日本酒 and 清酒 fairly interchangeably.


11

The best way is to look each of these terms up individually in Japanese language dictionaries and check examples of usage, but here's a translated synopsis. Many of these meanings overlap. でも: "though that may be the case" / (though the prior statement may be true) しかし: "in contrast to the previous statement" / (lit. "unlike" the prior statement) ただし: is ...


11

You guessed it. 大辞林 has 商店 商品を売る店。 i.e. a shop selling consumer goods. E.g. a clothes shop: 売店 物を売る店。特に、病院・劇場・遊園地などの施設内の小さな店。 i.e. a stand selling things. In particular, a small stand/shop in hospitals, theatres, amusement parks or other facilities. E.g. a 売店 in a train station: In other words, a 商店's main business comes from their goods; a 売店's ...


10

Both are used. お冷 is a bit more chic and it is only cold water (to drink) while お水 is just water in a general meaning. You will never be repressed for using お水 instead of お冷, vice versa.


10

The only difference between the two phrases is in their formality level. どのように is more formal (and polite) than どうやって. If you are familiar with the verb やる, you know that it is a casual/conversational verb. やって is a form of やる. What is the verb that is more formal than やる but has the same meaning? It is する. Thus, you can also say どのようにして to mean "...


10

"What is 学校" is not an easy question; there are many definitions of it. but here's the summary: Legally speaking, "the narrow definition" of 学校 (aka 一条校), as defined in the first clause of the law called 学校教育法, includes public and private 小学校, 中学校, 高校, 大学, and so on. And it also does include kindergartens (!) but does not include so-called 大学校. Broader ...


9

My non-native intuition, with examples stolen/adapted from alc: 済む means "to complete", in the sense that its negative implies that there are things lacking, or things yet to do/happen. Perhaps 済んだ has the sense of "over and done with", and has a slight feeling of relief about it. 済まない means "it is not finished", and implies that the speaker feels a sense ...


9

おてもと does refer to chopsticks but it is not "another word for chopsticks." That is, you won't say おてもとを取ってください nor 新しいおてもとを買ってこようかな. According to the source article that Chocolate's Wikipedia article mentions, the word came from a reference to "お手もと箸" (chopsticks for your personal use) in contrast to "お取り箸", which refers to chopsticks for shared dishes that ...


9

欲求 is a fairly objective / scientific word which is seen in psychological / sociological articles. 欲望 is kind of earthly by far, often meaning a lust toward money, fame, domination, possessions, and sexual actions. While the above two are used mostly in writings, 欲 is by much a conversational word, and has a range of various usages. 欲念 is rare. I believe ...


9

胃: A digestive organ located between the esophagus and the duodenum. English "stomach" refers to both this specific organ and the abdomen, but you should make clear distinction in Japanese. 胃袋: A more casual word for 胃. Not used in formal/medical documents. 腹: Abdomen. お腹: Abdomen. Sounds more mild and politer than 腹. 腹部【ふくぶ】: Abdominal area. (formal and/or ...


9

I am a native speaker of Japanese. Your question is very interesting. Your recognition of 成熟 is more or less correct. We usually use 熟成 for food. It reminds me of good food which is taken a long time to deepen the taste. 熟成 cannot use for people. 成熟した: Grown up, matured 熟成した: The taste deeply brought out (sometimes with a enzyme)


9

変更 specifically refers to a human-caused update/modification of a plan, project, document, destination, etc. 変化 refers to change in general. As suru-verbs, 変更する is transitive, and 変化する is intransitive. For example, you can say 季節の変化 but not 季節の変更. You can say 計画を変更する but not 計画を変化する.


8

This is no easy question and I do not claim to know all about it. Informally, 「[経験]{けいけん}」 and 「[体験]{たいけん}」 are often used interchangeably when referring to a single incident that is a new experience for that person. Regarding whether or not doing so is appropriate, I will leave the judgement to the experts here. All I know for certain is that native ...


8

From my personal experience, 「亡くなる」 is the most neutral word. 「先生のお父さんはがんで亡くなられたよ」 - "Our teacher's father died from cancer" 「死ぬ」 is a strong word that is usually avoided by polite people, but is used to express emphasis or to deliberately offend. It can also be used to talk about animals. 「勝手に死ね!」 - Literally, "Die on your own!", but is very strong and ...


8

First sentence まいばん くにの かぞくに でんわします。 I call my family at my home country every evening. First of all, the family is not making the call, but someone (probably the speaker, it could be someone else) is making a phone call to the family, because it is marked with the particle に. The particle に marks the goal or destination of the action, in this case, ...


7

帰る, sometimes translated as "to go home" is the preferred way to say "to go back", when you speak about your home country, your home town, your parents' home, etc. For example, I have to go back to Australia next month. 来月オーストラリアに帰らないといけない。 (or any other version of "have to") If you've lived in another country, then saying 来月イギリスに帰る。 sounds like ...


7

In spoken language, strange as it may sound, there is really no shorter way to say [下]{した}の[名前]{なまえ} to refer to one's given name. As a native speaker, I would surely know if there were such a word. There are a couple of ways to ask for one's given name in spoken Japanese. 1) Direct: 「下のお名前を[教]{おし}えていただけますか。」 2) Indirect: 「[田中]{たなか}なに[様]{さま} (or [田中]{...


7

Regarding the difference between 歌 and 曲: An (entire) work of vocal music, A track (with vocal): Both 曲 or 歌 are used interchangeably, but the former is more common. ビートルズの[曲/歌]が2つ入ったCD A work of music without vocal (e.g. a piece of classical music): 曲 シューベルトの曲を演奏する Music (as opposed to lyrics/vocal), Melody: 曲 Song (as opposed to melody/lyrics), ...


7

A corpus is a good tool to answer this type of question yourself. 舅姑: 30 Hits (Many instances are from the same author born before 1960's) 義父母: 50 Hits (Many are from blog articles and chiebukuro questions) 義母: 758 Hits 義父: 536 Hits 義理の親: 7 Hits 義理の母: 30 Hits 義理の父: 33 Hits 義親: 20 Hits IMHO, 舅姑 sounds old, and it may have an unwanted connotation (the ...


7

「とうとう」implies a continual process that led to the outcome, whereas 「結局」doesn't. For example, one can say 「結局力不足なのだ」but not「とうとう力不足なのだ」because 力不足 is not a state achieved via a continuous process. On the other hand, one can both say「とうとう力尽きた」and「結局力尽きた」which has roughly the same meaning, but the former draws a lot more attention to the continued struggle ...


7

Regardless of how they may be rendered in the natural English, 家族 always points to people, while 家庭 always place. In other words, 家族 is a group united by kinship or whatever that often lives together, or its member; 家庭 is an environment that enables those people to gather and spend a private life (as opposed to "workplace" etc.) Many words can be ...


6

From Goo thesaurus: 【2】「意見」は、十分に考え尽くされた結果である場合も、一時的な思いつきである場合もある。 【3】「見解」は、十分考慮し判断した結果まとめあげられたものをいい、政府など公式の機関の考えなどに用いられることが多い。 Loose translation: 意見 can be well thought out, or it can just be something that popped into your head. 見解 refers to the result of sufficient consideration and judgement, and is often used with the thoughts of official institutions ...


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