28

Why are there so many terms for these generic words? Most of them have different meanings. Some are used for Western royalty, some are used for Chinese royalty. 王 - (in general) King e.g. アーサー王 King Arthur 王 - (in historical China and historical Asia) One of the titles of the lords in the Imperial China, or the King of the Imperial Chinese tributary state ...


17

All what you've mentioned above are common words. Despite being synonyms, each of those words has different shades of meaning even when refers to the same object. I could roughly group them into several clusters as follows: 道具 / 器具 They lay stress on direct human manipulation, typically fulfill their purposes by (wholly or partially) being handled freely ...


16

You're right that 触れる can be used metaphorically, but 触る is normally reserved for physical touch only. 触る generally indicates a stronger, more intentional kind of "touch" than 触れる. From the other perspective, 触れる is often used to convey a sense of gentle or light touching, or even "brushing against" something. Note that it's possible to use the particle を ...


16

My guess is that ''furansugo'' is used in normal speech whereas ''futsugo'' is only used in very formal speech. You're on the right track. Nowadays the only European language called by its kanji name in speech is 英語. I'd say that it's rather inevitable because if you say イギリス語 it'd sound like "British English". So, virtually nobody use 仏語【ふつご】 instead of ...


13

The dictionary is unfortunately vague on this matter, but some discussion elsewhere on the web lends some clues to the nuance. These discussions say that やってくる, as you suggest, places more emphasis on the act of coming, but especially that the traveler came with some particular effort or purpose, or from especially far away. From the second link: 「やって来る」...


13

天気 (1-3 days): You'll hear 天気 used the most, as in 天気予報 weather forecast or 天気はいいですか Is the weather good today? You should almost always translate 天気 as "weather" in English. 天候 (2-10 days): 天候 refers to the overall state of the atmosphere between a few days to about 10 days. Its use isn't that common, however, in casual conversation it shows up in the ...


13

チケット: Tickets for theaters, amusement parks, sport games, etc. 切符: Tickets in general used for trains, buses, etc. 乗車券: An official term used by railway companies for a type of 切符. 乗車券 refers to a basic fare ticket whose price is calculated based on the travel distance. You may additionally need other types of 切符 such as 特急券 ("limited express train ticket"). ...


11

You guessed it. 大辞林 has 商店 商品を売る店。 i.e. a shop selling consumer goods. E.g. a clothes shop: 売店 物を売る店。特に、病院・劇場・遊園地などの施設内の小さな店。 i.e. a stand selling things. In particular, a small stand/shop in hospitals, theatres, amusement parks or other facilities. E.g. a 売店 in a train station: In other words, a 商店's main business comes from their goods; a 売店's ...


11

クマネズミ属{ぞく} is the Rattus genus, to which all "true" rats belong, whereas Mice belong to the ハツカネズミ属, or Mus genus. These genera are both subgroups to the sub-family ネズミ亜科{あか}, or Murinae. Now, these are the scientific names, and luckily, in contrast to English, these scientific names are based on Japanese words, so they do make sense for common people. If ...


10

Both are used. お冷 is a bit more chic and it is only cold water (to drink) while お水 is just water in a general meaning. You will never be repressed for using お水 instead of お冷, vice versa.


10

The best way is to look each of these terms up individually in Japanese language dictionaries and check examples of usage, but here's a translated synopsis. Many of these meanings overlap. でも: "though that may be the case" / (though the prior statement may be true) しかし: "in contrast to the previous statement" / (lit. "unlike" the prior statement) ただし: is ...


10

An excerpt from 広辞苑's definition for 鉄拳: 堅く握りかためたこぶし。にぎりこぶし。げんこつ。 In short, こぶし means fist, while 鉄拳 means more specifically a tightly clenched fist. This should come as no surprise to you, as you've already looked it up in dictionaries which say so. It's true that it literally means "iron fist", but it isn't generally used for its literal meaning. ...


10

欲求 is a fairly objective / scientific word which is seen in psychological / sociological articles. 欲望 is kind of earthly by far, often meaning a lust toward money, fame, domination, possessions, and sexual actions. While the above two are used mostly in writings, 欲 is by much a conversational word, and has a range of various usages. 欲念 is rare. I believe ...


10

"What is 学校" is not an easy question; there are many definitions of it. but here's the summary: Legally speaking, "the narrow definition" of 学校 (aka 一条校), as defined in the first clause of the law called 学校教育法, includes public and private 小学校, 中学校, 高校, 大学, and so on. And it also does include kindergartens (!) but does not include so-called 大学校. Broader ...


10

胃: A digestive organ located between the esophagus and the duodenum. English "stomach" refers to both this specific organ and the abdomen, but you should make clear distinction in Japanese. 胃袋: A more casual word for 胃. Not used in formal/medical documents. 腹: Abdomen. お腹: Abdomen. Sounds more mild and politer than 腹. 腹部【ふくぶ】: Abdominal area. (formal and/or ...


10

変更 specifically refers to a human-caused update/modification of a plan, project, document, destination, etc. 変化 refers to change in general. As suru-verbs, 変更する is transitive, and 変化する is intransitive. For example, you can say 季節の変化 but not 季節の変更. You can say 計画を変更する but not 計画を変化する.


9

My non-native intuition, with examples stolen/adapted from alc: 済む means "to complete", in the sense that its negative implies that there are things lacking, or things yet to do/happen. Perhaps 済んだ has the sense of "over and done with", and has a slight feeling of relief about it. 済まない means "it is not finished", and implies that the speaker feels a sense ...


9

やってくる is "(something) comes closer (from somewhere)", so it's slightly different from 来る and this gives rise to various nuances. Your example, 友達がやってきた, gives me the feeling that your friend either showed up unannounced/unexpected, or dilly-dallied on their way. It wasn't a direct and simple "came". Note that the やってくる you are describing is a unique word (...


9

First, I want to give my personal impression. (Keep in mind that I'm just learning Japanese, so I have less experiences to call on than some other people! But I think perhaps I've seen enough Japanese to give an impression worth sharing, nonetheless.) My impression is that 字引 is just another word for dictionary, but that it's quite a lot less common. The ...


9

おてもと does refer to chopsticks but it is not "another word for chopsticks." That is, you won't say おてもとを取ってください nor 新しいおてもとを買ってこようかな. According to the source article that Chocolate's Wikipedia article mentions, the word came from a reference to "お手もと箸" (chopsticks for your personal use) in contrast to "お取り箸", which refers to chopsticks for shared dishes that ...


9

I am a native speaker of Japanese. Your question is very interesting. Your recognition of 成熟 is more or less correct. We usually use 熟成 for food. It reminds me of good food which is taken a long time to deepen the taste. 熟成 cannot use for people. 成熟した: Grown up, matured 熟成した: The taste deeply brought out (sometimes with a enzyme)


8

平行 can mean the same thing as 並行 in the second sense (物事が同時に行われる), so it does not encompass 並行 completely. For example, 電車と並行して走る should not use 平行 (although don't be surprised if you see the two mixed up). However, just look at the characters, the 並 of 並行 can be seen in words like 並ぶ while the 平 of 平行 can be seen in words like 平面. So, in general, 平行 is ...


8

This is another one of those situations where depending on a simple English translation will cause you to lose a lot of important details. If you look at the kanji the difference is pretty clear. 餌食 combines 餌{えさ} and 食 of 食べ物. 餌 means animal feed, and 食 is of course eat, so 餌食 becomes prey in the sense of something that an animal eats for its food, like a ...


8

I can think of two differences: 自分 can only be used for referring to singular, you can use 自ら for referring to a group of people. Examples 社員たちが自らの力で組織内の問題を解決する。 子供たちが自らの力で未来を切り拓いていく。 自ら can have implied meaning of "not relying on others" or "by one's own will". Example 自ら勉強する 自分で勉強する In the above, 自分で simply means by "oneself&...


8

From my personal experience, 「亡くなる」 is the most neutral word. 「先生のお父さんはがんで亡くなられたよ」 - "Our teacher's father died from cancer" 「死ぬ」 is a strong word that is usually avoided by polite people, but is used to express emphasis or to deliberately offend. It can also be used to talk about animals. 「勝手に死ね!」 - Literally, "Die on your own!", but is very strong and ...


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