6

At the word level, you have identified everything correctly. However, 怖い is an adjective that means either "scared" or "scary" depending on the context, and if someone sees this sentence without any context, they usually take this 怖い as "scared" (or "afraid"). In other words, you usually imagine someone who is being ...


5

To add onto naruto's answer, [怖い]{こわい} in your sample sentence could be parsed as "What is scary?" in a generalized sense, and also contextually as "What is scary to you?" That latter interpretation is functionally equivalent in some ways to "What are you afraid of?", hence the different possible translations into English.


3

「彼女」はこの文における目的語です。 「見覚えがある」というのをひとかたまりの述語(=verb)として捉えたとき、この述語の目的語に当たるのが「彼女」です。 日本語では名詞が目的語であることを示すのに助詞を必要とします。この場合は「に」です。 例 彼は彼女に怒りをおぼえた。=彼は彼女に怒った また「見覚えがある」の「が」もまた助詞です。 「見覚え」は名詞で、主語となるので、「ある」に対する主語であることを示すため「が」という助詞がついています。


2

見覚え is a noun here, hence it's marked with が as the subject of ある. 見覚えがある is a set phrase meaning "to recognize" by sight. The particle に here marks that in which one finds familiarity. Thus, 彼は彼女に見覚えがある means "He recognizes her".


2

Background There is a fundamental difference between the English labels "transitive" / "intransitive" and the Japanese labels 他動詞【たどうし】 / 自動詞【じどうし】. Please read the thread about that here: Can verbs be both transitive and intransitive? Key point: 自動詞【じどうし】 can sometimes have a syntactic (based on the grammatical structure of the ...


2

If you don’t know whether or not whatever uttered the voice did so in response to the sound, you might say: その音に反応したのかどうかわからない。 If you suspect it did, you might say: その音に反応したのかもしれない。 のか in your sentence should be understood along these lines. In fact, he could have as well said: その音に反応したのかもしれない。わたしの耳に一つの声が届いた。 or その音に反応したのかもしれないが、わたしの耳に一つの声が届いた。 You ...


2

In this sentence, のか means that the speaker is guessing at a cause. To translate the sentence, "Perhaps reacting to the sound, I heard a voice." Kind of a gross translation, but essentially the speaker is guessing that the voice they hear is from someone vocalizing in reaction to the referenced sound.


1

「までに」は動作がその時点までに完了するときに使います Ex 宿題を明日までに終わらせる。 君が帰るまでに掃除をしておく。 それに対して 「まで」は動作、状態が継続しているときに使います。 EX 祭りは明日までです。 寝ないで朝まで仕事をする。 「までに」→by(完了) 「まで」→until(継続) という使い分けをするわけです。


1

のみか is much less common than any of the phrases you listed as alternatives. I probably have never used it myself in my entire life, and BCCWJ has less than 20 examples of this のみか. I'm a bit surprised that an N2 level textbook tries to teach it. It feels literary due to its rarity, but I think there is no semantic difference between it and ばかりか, etc.


1

I understood your question as asking whether different constructions are used to express the ideas of A and B are different and X and Y are different where the statement A and B are different in X and Y is true. If my understanding is correct, I find it to be a very interesting question. Your English sentence, which is actually two sentences connected ...


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