It is a specific usage to headlines in newspaper. Practically it means it is going to happen, which derives from the most basic sense of へ: direction.
The line in the question has が and を omitted: 日本郵政が「かんぽの宿」をすべて売却へ, which means Japan Post will sell all of its 「かんぽの宿」 (hotel business).
Exactly what particles are omitted varies, and to get the full meaning ...
The sentence you have in mind would be parsed this way:
The と is quoting the clause 欧米人が野蛮人だ.
On the other hand...
Here, 欧米人 is the object of 思った. The structure is 「XXをYY(だ)と思う」"think of XX as YY", not 「欧米人を野蛮人だ」と思う.
「XXをYYと思う」 can be used this way:
First of all, スクリーンショットを絵文字のし方 is ungrammatical. し方 works as a normal noun, rather than a verb phrase followed by the noun 方, and therefore doesn’t take an object with を like that.
スクリーンショットの絵文字のし方 is a grammatical noun phrase, where the noun し方 has two modifiers, both ending with の. However, its meaning is ambiguous, and therefore, you should avoid this ...
If you are starting to ignore particles and rely on guesslation, that's a bad habit. For example, if you ignore the difference between は and が, you will easily run into a trouble like this. But if you are becoming less conscious of particles (or grammar in general) while listening, that's a good thing. Native children speak fluently without even knowing what ...
Nouns never conjugate. There is no such thing as "the te-form of a noun" in the first place. That で is a case particle because it directly follows a noun. Semantically, で like this broadly marks a condition/situation/scope, and it corresponds to various English prepositions such as in, with, by or among. noun + で + いい is a common construction used ...
They are not interchangeable in this circumstance. In general, boarding a vehicle takes the particle に with 乗る. Getting off a vehicle often takes the particle を to mark the object of the action of getting off.
As a memory trick (if it helps), think of getting on something as movement upwards (stepping up onto a train, getting up on a bike, climbing on a ...
You can use が instead of を in the sentence.
which translates literally :
Why did Japanese think that Westerners were barbarians?
whereas the sentence in the question translates literally:
Why did Japanese consider Westerners as barbarians?
So arguably the answer is that it is a matter of the writer's choice of construction. ...
I think the confusion comes from the function of the particles. It's a little bit hard to grasp because it adds a dimension that we don't have in English. Even if they function as exhaustive and non-exhaustive, it's strictly for what is mentioned, not the point you're making. I think it's easier to understand if we translate them:
文法と漢字に集中したほうがいいよ - You ...
I think that if you put 特に, then both reasonably satisfy your goals 1 and 2.
Generally, use of と sounds more of an exclusive choice. So comparing
1 sounds more urging to forget about things other than grammar and kanji than 2. But note that without 特に (like 文法と漢字 sentences), both do not sound particularly "open to ...