There are two main meanings/functions to ため.
One, which you already know, is the「目的のため」, used to express purpose (translating as "for the sake of", "for the purpose of", or "in order to").
The other is the 「原因・理由のため」, and which I assume you haven't come across, is used to express cause/reason (translating as "because of" or "owing to"). This is a ...
何もナシ means "(there is) nothing at all".
何も is a negative polarity item, which is always followed by a negation (ない, ぬ, ず, ...). Please see: The reason for using 何も+negative, but 何でも+positive
This なし is a classic version of ない, but it is still used when brevity is important. Please see: What form is あり?
なし on its own means "there is not", but 何も strengthens ...
禁止にします sounds like you will start to prohibit something, or you decided to prohibit something. This type of に is used in other set phrases related to making a decision (～に決める, ～に決定する). If something has been prohibited for a long time and it is going to be prohibited also in the future, then you have to say 禁止します. If you explicitly want to say you prohibit ...
In these examples, を is used in another sense:
The を indicates the surrounding situation/circumstance in which an action or event takes place.
* The second を in the first example 雨の中を横断歩道を駆け抜ける indicates "...
I guess what you are confusing is interpreting this「を」as "only limited to real/certain/substantial" 'point of departure'. The「を」can be "your mental picture/your memory/your image" of 'point of departure'.
So, the sentence:「彼は雨の中を出ていった。」 simply tells the fact : "When it's raining(outside), he left.". It can be "snapshot" and does not specifies that he was ...
Verb+と doesn't work, it sounds like the other person has to wait until after you've done it.
If (someone like me) can do it, so can you!
Or for example
You're right that this particular に (ni) is the indirect object marker. 聞く (kiku) is a transitive verb which means "to ask" in this context. The object it takes is the thing that is asked rather than the person being asked, so it can take both に (ni) and を (wo) at the same time e.g.
sensei ni ...
Too long for a comment so I write it as an "answer".
As you said, に can be used as an indirect object marker. For example: I write an email to my colleague.
email is the direct object
colleague is the indirect object
As far as I know there are some "special words", which call for に as a particle.
...聞く (to ask) or ...会う (to meet) [Perhaps ...
Note, the OP amended their question after this answer.
This is a bit of an strange question. Perhaps I'm misunderstanding you but the fact that you are talking about weather has nothing to do with the choice of particles. The same rules apply to weather as they do to anything else.
Let's take your example sentence:
This would be what you ...
it seems like:
Is more correct than
Not really, the bottom one is perfectly correct. For example you'll probably find more examples of 昨日新しい着物を着ました than 昨日は新しい着物を着ました. The reason why you get 今日は more is just because people more often talk about what they did today. It's as if answering the unanswered question "...