On the Japan Foundation website, you can download a PDF that outlines the differences between なか and うち. While that particular issue is not relevant to the question, the document explains all sorts of grammatical constructions using なか, including the「〜なかで」construction.
There are two distinct usages according to the document, which the ...
Much as 古手梨花 described, ので is used to express a reason for something, similar to "because" in English. Grammatically, ので is the conjunctive conjugation of のだ (plain form) and のです (polite form), which can be parsed as possessive or genitive の + the copula ("to be") verb だ or です.
の attaches directly to nouns or noun phrases, ...
I would use 「～とだけ」 or 「～としか...ない」.
His correction was "けんぽうで、みなさんはざいさんけんにかかわらずしぜんきょうじゅけんがあるだけだと言う", but that seems to me like "only" is part of the quote
I agree with you. 「～があるだけだと言う」 would mean "It says that you only have ...
「そう」 may be used as a 様態の助動詞 or 伝聞の助動詞
The そう should be 伝聞の助動詞. Compare:
「するそう(だ)」 -- 伝聞の助動詞
「しそう(だ)」 -- 様態の助動詞
伝聞の助動詞「そうだ」 is attached to the terminal form of a verb (動詞の終止形).
様態の助動詞「そうだ」 is attached to the continuative form of a verb (動詞の連用形).
According to 明鏡国語辞典:
🈩 様態 [......
「ので」 is used when we express resons (理由・原因). Connection (接続) of 「ので」 is 連体形 + の.
「ので」 comes from 準体助詞「の」 plus 格助詞「で」, which means 「の」 could be seen as a noun here.
You might think 「日曜日のので」 is the right answer, but it's just too difficult to say in daily converstion (because of the double の, it sounds weird), so we use 「日曜日なので」 ...
Conjunction が has nothing to do with particle が and the は・が problem. Only difference between 暇ですが and 暇ですけど is that the latter is more colloquial. Apart from that, they are the same.
I'm not talking about the two はs after each contrasted element, but
about the は after 私. I've never quite understood if a sentence can
have two topics or not, or under what ...
ご存じ is not a verb in the first place. It's a honorific no-adjective that has to be used with だ/です. You can think it roughly corresponds to "familiar/aware" with respectful feelings. I don't know why, but there is no direct honorific version of 知っている. Whenever you want to say "someone knows something" with respect, you have to use this no-...
About question 1 & 2
I've never heard the phrase "なんだけどを". We don't say like that.
If it's "なんだけど" or "なんだけども", it makes sense.
Yes, 誰か can safely take は if there is a reason to do so. As you said, this 誰か is not for making a question but is a lexicalized noun meaning "someone". It behaves almost like other ordinary nouns, and you can attach arbitrary particles as long as it makes sense (誰かを, 誰かに "to someone", 誰かと "with someone", 誰かから "from someone&...
This English translation is correct at least in that ～でも means "even (in/with/etc) ～". This 初めまして同士 means "two people who met each other for the first time" (or maybe "two first-timers" depending on the context). The first half of the sentence basically means "Even though it's a pair session of two people who met each other ...
You can rather straightforwardly translate 違いはXにある to "the difference exists/lies in X". X can be a noun phrase or a noun clause (i.e., "in that ～"). This ところ refers to an abstract "point", but it can be replaced to こと here. I think there is no significant difference in meaning.
The difference lies ...
Yes, the second じゃない is an informal way to say something like "right?" or "don't you agree?". You can see the rest of the sentence as the actual statement, and じゃない just as a way to involve the other person. Something like "isn't it?", if you want to have a negative example.
they prefer using a passive voice
It's not that we prefer passive voice but the speaker being the subject of the sentence rather than the third party. (Animacy hierarchy) Anyway, it's true that those example sentences are natural in this regard.
Is my correction (the second sentence) better?
This の is a plain explanatory-の you are already familiar with. It's in a と-marked quote, and quotes can contain ordinary sentences with は, のだ, etc. This のだ is there because what's before it is a (possible) explanation of why 四糸乃 appeared.
(It's that) she (=四糸乃) came here to get back at her (=七罪) after waiting ...
I don't know any resource like that, but I can give you some basic rules. を has three functions: direct object, place you go out from (like in your example) and place you pass by (with verbs like 散歩する). If it's not any of those we're talking about, you can forget を.
へ can only be used for direction, and if へ can be used, に is also valid. The only difference ...
It means "and; in addition to". In case you need some source, check here or here.
You might have heard of 「それに」, meaning 「そのうえ。それに加えて」, example sentences:
And you can find the usage in 「ドラえもんのうた」
宿題(しゅくだい) 当番(とうばん) 試験(しけん)に おつかい
あんなこと こんなこと たいへんだけど
宿題 当番 試験に おつかい means 宿題+当番+試験+(に)おつかい
In you ...