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8

At least grammatically speaking, 悲しまず is not an explicit imperative but a plain negative form of 悲しむ ("not to grieve", "not to be sad"). It's simply 悲しまない in modern Japanese. As usual, this sentence lacks an explicit subject like "I" or "you". So the problem is the nature of this document itself. Why, and to whom, did ...


4

What you are describing is one of the functions of the helping verb (助動詞) てくる. Although the basic idea is the same: 来る/行く are a directional pair meaning "come" and "go", they have more than one figurative usages. The usage you are familiar with is expressions of temporal directions. In addition, てくる, ていく can also function to indicate ...


4

How about using [嬉]{うれ}しい, such as in: Hanako likes it when Yuki makes new friends. 花子さんは、雪さんに新しい友達ができるのが嬉しい。 花子さんは、雪さんに新しい友達ができると嬉しい。 Hanako likes it when the roads are quiet. 花子さんは、道が静かなのが嬉しい。 花子さんは、道が静かだと嬉しい。 Hanako likes it when her room is being cleaned. 花子さんは、部屋を掃除してもらうのが嬉しい。 花子さんは、部屋を掃除してもらうと嬉しい。


3

上 does not directly mean "on". It means "above", "upper", "on top", etc. Omitting it in the Japanese is the same as omitting "top" in English. 俺の机[に]{L}は置くな → Don't put it on my desk 俺の机[の上に]{LLL}は置くな → Don't put it on top of my desk If something is on the desk, you know it must be on top of it (unless ...


3

The basic structure of the sentence is: 世界中から惜しむ反応が出るというのは、 There are condolences from around the world, which means, 岩田さんに対する思いが惜しむ声にもつながっている Thoughts toward Iwata-san have led to the condolences. ような気がいたしました。 That's what I felt. So I would parse it this way: 世界中からいろんなこう惜しむ反応が出るというのは、 There are various condolences like this from around the world, which ...


3

They are not interchangeable. からこそ emphasizes a cause-effect relationship ("exactly because of", "this is the very reason"), whereas ときている by itself emphasizes some unexpected fact ("on top of that", "what's more", "you know what", "behold" or simply "!!"). I don't know why all the ...


3

"入れ物の品質がよくなければ、中身もよくない" means "If the container is not good, then the contents are not good". That means, if the container is not good, the contents can't be good. However, just because the container is good, doesn't mean the contents are necessarily good (they can still be bad). If that's what you are trying to say, "入れ物の品質がよくなければ、...


2

Are there two subjects in these sentences (ひと and みんな)? No, in your second example, this みな is working as an adverb. It's working like adverbial all as in "We are all mortal". Is it optional to use が after だれしも or みんな? I mean, is it correct to use it? It depends. ひとはだれしも...: OK (だれしも is adverbial) ひとは皆...: OK (皆 is adverbial) ひとはだれしもが...: OK ...


2

休む is basically intransitive, but it has this transitive usage, too. You can say 会社を休む, 会議を休む, 学校を休む, and so on. Transitivity of most verbs are straightforward, but there are many tricky ones which you simply have to memorize. See this answer for similar examples. Also note that many intransitive verbs related to movement can take を, in which case を is more ...


2

I think I'd have been happy with 橋本聖子さんに会長になることを頼む. Is this grammatical/natural? It's good but "橋本聖子さんに会長になるように頼む" is more natural. Is 橋本聖子さんに会長を頼む just a shorter way of saying this? Yes. 頼む can simply take a noun, e.g. 寿司を頼む (order sushi / ask them to make sushi) and あとを頼む (leave them to do the rest). Usually we don't distinguish 'presidency' ...


1

First, 上下 means higher and lower social status (such as sempai and kohai) The reason に is used in this case is because は is being used after 上下 for emphasis. You can't use は twice in the same phrase. Also the phrase is being used to describe the subject アメリカ人 If you are confused about the descriptive phrasing, here are more examples: ごめんなさいと言えない人とは友達になりたくない ...


1

They assume that children should not start gaming, reading comics or doing other non-productive things like ゴロゴロする from the morning, noon or any time in the daytime. [Edit] After thinking for hours, I realized it's not right to translate から into 'from' here. The feeling or sense of から seems different than 'from'. It's interesting to know that "from the ...


1

「に」is needed here because of 「ある」. This is a 「B に A がある/いる」 "There is A in/at B" construction. 「は」is a topic marker that elevates the location/place (B) to the topic. The subject is the thing (A) that exists.


1

First, note that 役に立つ is not an adjective but a verb-based set phrase (do you remember ます only follows a verb?). If you want an adjective that directly corresponds to the adjective 'useful', use 便利な (na-adjective) or 有用な (na-adjective) instead. 立ち is one of the many forms of the verb 立つ. I don't know how your textbook calls the former, but it's commonly ...


1

Yes, 言い切る means "to say firmly" or "to say with confidence". It sometimes means "to say until the end", too. 仲良くなる is closer to "to make friends with" rather than "to get to know". いるよ。仲良くなったって言いきれるのはまだ数人だけど。 I do. There are only a few people that I can (safely) say I made friends with, though.


1

In a broad sense, yes, it belongs to what's described in your link. But in this specific case, ~くらいに + [mental/sensory verb] is more like a set phrase that can be replaced by ~ような(もの/こと)だと. It implies that the previously said content is an approximation or likening, rather than a faithfully manifested impression.


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