First of all, "present(s)" is 「プレゼント」.
Next, 「買う心配」 is grammatical because 「心配」 is a noun in this context; It is not a na-adjective here. Since it is a noun, the 「が」 can directly follow the 「心配」.
As a noun, 「心配」 can mean "worry/worries", "care", "anxiety", "fear", "uneasiness", etc.
So, the sentence means:
"I/We/You have ...
In Japanese, as a general rule, the more important a piece of information is, the closer it will go to the end of the sentence.
In 「この建物にいいレストランがあります」, the feeling is that the most important bit of information is the fact that there is a good restaurant. Whereas in 「いいレストランがこの建物にあります」, the feeling is that the most important bit of information is its ...
に対して and に向かって are being used in similar ways here to mean "in regards to" and "towards" respectively, to indicate who is being 呼びかけた'd.
"A first year (accidentally) addressed a third year as Yukinoさん (among other things)."
"A first year (...
Your translation is correct, and どんな意味が込められているのか考えるもの(=形) is a completely natural Japanese phrase at the same time. Grammatically speaking, I think this is something called a gapless relative clause explained here. Other similar examples include:
英語を学ぶ楽しみ the joy of learning English (not "the joy which is learning English")
カエルが水に飛び込む音 the sound of a frog ...
Your translation is 100% spot on.
However, this usage of 考える is neither colloquial nor poor use of the language.
Following your same logic, パッと見て何を模したかわかる形 would imply that the 形 is the thing doing the looking and the understanding, but we know that to not be the case. We know that the thing doing the looking and understanding is a general person, the '...
The 心配 is a noun here. It's a common pattern of modifying nouns. Try searching for "modifying noun".
Basically there is a main clause and a sub-clause ending in a plain-form verb. The verb doesn't have to be in present tense.
This ひら doesn't mean 平(flat, plain) but ひらり.
Dictionaries say ひらり means
ひらっと is almost the same as ひらりと, which means "lightly", "nimbly".
「ひらっと」 is not a very common onomatopoeic adverb to use in the context of passing by someone. It would, however, mean "casually", "quickly", etc.
More commonly, you would encounter 「さっと」、「さーっと」、「すっと」、「すーっと」、「ふらっと」, etc.
Not sure what dictionary you use, but 「ひらっと」 just could not mean "flat or "plain" in the context. You would not pass by someone "flat(...
Both 書ける and 書けます (and so too 書けるか and 書けますか) have the same meaning, in so far as both are a non-past potential form of the same verb, 書く. However, 書ける is the 'plain form' of the potential verb, while 書けます is the 'polite form' (or 'ます form') of the non-past potential verb.
The difference between them is that you are conveying a sense of politeness towards ...
Without complete predicate, it is hard to generalize the difference between 〜ないでいる and 〜ていない. So, I'd like to use 食べていない and 食べないでいる from your example.
And, I have not understood what "instrumental adjunct" states clearly,but I'd like to answer.
The author in the link might be explaining the sentence : 食事を食べないでいる implies "I want to be in the state of not ...