103

と, ば The main clause must be a constant non-volitional reaction to the conditional clause unless the conditional clause shows state or if the subjects of the two clauses differ. お金を入れてボタンを押すと、切符が出ます。 'When you put in money and press the button, a ticket will come out.' 春になると、観光客が増えます。 'When spring arrives, tourists increase.' ...


44

In the modern form, ず is only used as an adverbial (食べずに出る leave without eating). ぬ can replace ない. In 文語, the grammar used in writing until the reformations after WWII and still at least partially in many forms of poetry, songs, and very formal documents, the use of ず and ぬ was/is grammatically constrained in a manner no longer present in modern Japanese. ...


31

行ったら - "if you (happen to) go" (simple possibility) 行くなら - "if you're going (anyway)" (often in the sense of while you're at it) 行けば - "if you('d) go" (emphasis on the condition that must be fulfilled before something happens) 行くと - "when you go" ("…you'll find that…", focuses on what happens when the condition is fulfilled) 行くんだったら - "if you're about to go" ...


28

I will answer the two questions separately. How to make the form of i-adjectives before ございます Grammatically はよう, ありがとう, めでとう, たのしゅう, おいしゅう in these examples are called ウ音便 (うおんびん) of はやく, ありがたく, めでたく, たのしく, おいしく, respectively. 音便 (おんびん) means the form modified for easy pronunciation. The actual form of ウ音便 of an i-adjective depends on the vowel before く ...


27

The most commonly known ぬ is the helper verb of negation, similar to ない. It is, like ない, added to the [未然形]{みぜんけい}-base of a verb: [立]{た}たぬ=立たない=does not stand. However, in this case we have ぬ being added to 立ち, and there's a different story behind it. Note how the English wikipedia entry for [風]{かぜ}[立]{た}ちぬ says "The wind rises", with no negative meaning ...


26

The -ou/-you form does have a negative counterpart, but it's considered rather literary, and in any case never used in a cohortative meaning ("Let's X"). That form is the なかろう form, e.g.: 食べなかろう, which means "[He/I/etc.] probably wouldn't eat." and is equivalent to the more colloquial form "食べないだろう". I think the most common simple way to express the meaning ...


26

しとく comes from しておく, which in turn comes from して置く. The literal translation of して置く would be, "do it, and then put [the results]". Basically it describes the act of doing something and storing the result of that so that when that result becomes useful, you can use it. EDIT: This literal meaning changed overtime (I presume) and しておく became to mean "do ...


23

Agglutinative languages are somewhat harder to understand than other categories. it's easy to see what the difference between synthetic fusional languages (like Latin or Russian) to isolating ones (such as Chinese or English): in isolating languages you only have words mixed with each other in various ways, but no morphology (or at least not very much of it, ...


22

-ぬ is an archaic form of -ない. I suspect its use in song lyrics has more to do with fitting the word into the right number of syllables; as far as I know, there is no difference in meaning. -ず, on the other hand, indicates that one action took place without or in the absence of another action (the one with -ず). For example, 待たずに先に行く: to go on ahead without ...


20

I don't think you can differentiate them without looking at the context. ハンバーガー が・を 食べられる → I can eat hamburgers ハンバーガーを食べられてしまった! → Someone ate my hamburger!! With the passive form, you'll usually see the doer/"culprit", indicated by ~に/~によって (there are some rules about which to use, but that's beyond the scope of this topic): ...


20

What I've read regarding the 見える、見られる and 聞こえる、聞ける doesn't appear to have been mentioned here at all and I think it's probably the clearest explanation. 見える - something comes into view 聞こえる - something can be heard Both of these describe sights/sounds that can be sensed regardless of the speaker's volition, e.g. if you look out the window you can see the ...


18

An English translation of the link provided by Tsuyoshi Ito: Preface: It is common knowledge that the verb 知る is an exceptional verb amongst verbs that take the ~ている form. ~ている is appended to the subject-changing verb and expresses the state after the change; its corresponding negated form is expressed as ~ていない. But contrary to expectations, the negated ...


18

住みたい means "want to live" and is the default choice. 住んでいたい is its progressive form and is used when there's some sense of progression, which works best when you're already living where you want to live "progressively". One overlap of usage is, e.g. ずっと東京に住みたい。 ずっと東京に住んでいたい。 This is not a perfect analogy, but in English we have roughly ...


16

Your "usual rule" is incomplete. It should be: drop -i if resulting is a single mora in length, add -sa add -sou. Hence, nai: na na + sa na + sa + sou --> nasasou. atui: atu (not applicable) atu + sou --> atusou.


15

In modern Japanese, instead of the conjugation [未然形]{みぜんけい}+[無]{な}い, another word is used to express the plain negative, namely 無い. This a process called suppletion, supplying a certain conjugational form with a different word. It exists in English as well. You don't say good and gooder, you talk about better, which comes from Proto-Indo-European *bhAd- ...


15

I think they have the same meaning. The basic difference is that 〜ようになる is commonly used after positive verbs, while 〜くなる is commonly used for negative verbs. Why? Well, negative verbs are morphologically shaped like adjectives, so they have the shorter 〜くなる form available, and that's what people use 99% of the time. That's not possible with positive ...


15

When you contract te oku to t'oku, you're still conjugating oku, so the normal rules apply. The only reason this might not be clear is that kana prevents us from dividing t'oku into t' and oku. Subsidiary verbs following ~て are grammaticalized, and people tend to contract grammatical words. So naturally, there are a number of contractions of ~て with ...


15

Verb stem (masu-stem) as a noun can have various meanings depending on the original verb, and you may not be able to determine its meaning without referring to a dictionary. I generally recommend you memorize these, and avoid "coining" a new word unless you're really comfortable with Japanese. Person who does the action (≒ -er/-or) 酔っ払い drunkard のぞき peeper ...


15

なって is indeed the te form of なる. 出なく is the morphing of 出ない (the negative form of 出る) to allow it to be connected to another verb. so 出ない + なる becomes 出なくなる (to start not coming out) Adding the te form to the end is just a way of connecting it to another sentence. This can be done to connect any verbs, for example 食べない (negative of 食べる) could become 食べなくなる ...


14

According to Tae Kim, there is a negative volitional form, but it is archaic and formal, so you're better off using the modern expressions given by the other answers. However, it does show up every now and then (トキ in 北斗の拳 seems to like using it), and it's a pretty simple conjugation, so it's worth knowing. To form the negative volitional, you add まい to ...


14

I liked the practical nature of the other answers, here's a more precise explanation I posted under a dupe thread. Yeah, these are not so easy as there is a complex set of circumstances where you can use one over the other. I'll try to cover the most common usages and differences. ~ば is used in the case of a consistent relationship of cause and effect. ...


14

I would translate those as 行ったら - If you went (there), ... 行くなら - If you going to go (there), ... 行けば - If you go (there), (you will) .... 行くんだったら - If you are about to go (there), ... 行くのなら - If you (have plan/are thinking) to go (there), ... 行くとしたら - (Let's say) if you go (there), ... 行くことになったら - If you have to go (there), (...


14

そう after the plain form of a verb indicates you are reporting secondhand information, rather than your own direct observations. 行けるそう means "it is said that it can go." The negative form is -ないそう: 降らないそうです "They say it won't rain." -そう after the stem (-ます form) of a verb means "looking/sounding as if ___." 行けそう means "it looks as if it can go." It is ...


14

[See this question, which deals with the same pattern when used with verbs. I'll adapt my answer from that question to answer yours.] -そう after the stem of a adjective means "looking/sounding as if ___." おいしそう means "it looks as if it will be delicious." It is similar to constructions like おいしいみたい or おいしいよう, but -そう emphasizes evidence of the senses rather ...


14

In classical Japanese, 死ぬ is an irregular verb (ナ行変格活用動詞). Its principal parts are as follows: Irrealis (未然形): 死な〜 Continuative (連用形): 死に〜 Predicative (終止形): 死ぬ Attributive (連体形): 死ぬる Realis (已然形): 死ぬれ〜 Imperative (命令形): 死ね The difference between the predicative and attributive forms is roughly analogous to the difference between 〜だ and 〜な for the ...


14

There are many ways to say "after ...ing" in japanese. There is no one to one translation, since you can use different words as "after" depending one the overall meaning of the sentence. -て から One of the most common translations and one of the first one learns would be: -て から This shouldn't be confused with the reason-giving から which is not used with ...


13

Here's where 歩けなく comes from: Start with the verb 歩く, "to walk". Turn it into its potential form: 歩ける, "able to walk". Make it negative: 歩けない, "unable to walk". Turn the newly formed i-adjective into an adverb: 歩けなく. Now, なっちゃう is a shorter form of なって + しまう. なって, of course, is the -て form of なる, which means "to become". なる requires that the adjective ...


13

In English, ~ぐらい and ~ごろ mean about, around, approximately. ~ぐらい is used for approximate quantities, which include duration. このXはいくらぐらいですか。About how much is this X? そのXは500円ぐらいです。 That X is about 500 yen. 六時間ぐらい図書館にいました。I was at the library for about 6 hours.  ~ごろ is used for approximate points in time, with an optional に. 八時ごろ(に)公園に来ました。I came to the ...


13

無理だったんだ is straightforward, it's a combination of 無理だった ("was impossible") and the explanatory-の. "So it is that it was impossible", "Because it was not possible", "(I failed but) it was impossible (in the first place)", etc. 無理なんだった is usually interpreted as a combination of 無理なんだ ("it's that it's impossible"; present tense) and discovery-た. "(Ah, I've ...


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