105

と, ば The main clause must be a constant non-volitional reaction to the conditional clause unless the conditional clause shows state or if the subjects of the two clauses differ. お金を入れてボタンを押すと、切符が出ます。 'When you put in money and press the button, a ticket will come out.' 春になると、観光客が増えます。 'When spring arrives, tourists increase.' ...


27

The most commonly known ぬ is the helper verb of negation, similar to ない. It is, like ない, added to the [未然形]{みぜんけい}-base of a verb: [立]{た}たぬ=立たない=does not stand. However, in this case we have ぬ being added to 立ち, and there's a different story behind it. Note how the English wikipedia entry for [風]{かぜ}[立]{た}ちぬ says "The wind rises", with no negative meaning ...


26

しとく comes from しておく, which in turn comes from して置く. The literal translation of して置く would be, "do it, and then put [the results]". Basically it describes the act of doing something and storing the result of that so that when that result becomes useful, you can use it. EDIT: This literal meaning changed overtime (I presume) and しておく became to mean "do ...


20

What I've read regarding the 見える、見られる and 聞こえる、聞ける doesn't appear to have been mentioned here at all and I think it's probably the clearest explanation. 見える - something comes into view 聞こえる - something can be heard Both of these describe sights/sounds that can be sensed regardless of the speaker's volition, e.g. if you look out the window you can see the ...


19

An English translation of the link provided by Tsuyoshi Ito: Preface: It is common knowledge that the verb 知る is an exceptional verb amongst verbs that take the ~ている form. ~ている is appended to the subject-changing verb and expresses the state after the change; its corresponding negated form is expressed as ~ていない. But contrary to expectations, the negated ...


19

When you contract te oku to t'oku, you're still conjugating oku, so the normal rules apply. The only reason this might not be clear is that kana prevents us from dividing t'oku into t' and oku. Subsidiary verbs following ~て are grammaticalized, and people tend to contract grammatical words. So naturally, there are a number of contractions of ~て with ...


18

住みたい means "want to live" and is the default choice. 住んでいたい is its progressive form and is used when there's some sense of progression, which works best when you're already living where you want to live "progressively". One overlap of usage is, e.g. ずっと東京に住みたい。 ずっと東京に住んでいたい。 This is not a perfect analogy, but in English we have roughly ...


16

Your "usual rule" is incomplete. It should be: drop -i if resulting is a single mora in length, add -sa add -sou. Hence, nai: na na + sa na + sa + sou --> nasasou. atui: atu (not applicable) atu + sou --> atusou.


15

In modern Japanese, instead of the conjugation [未然形]{みぜんけい}+[無]{な}い, another word is used to express the plain negative, namely 無い. This a process called suppletion, supplying a certain conjugational form with a different word. It exists in English as well. You don't say good and gooder, you talk about better, which comes from Proto-Indo-European *bhAd- ...


15

There are many ways to say "after ...ing" in japanese. There is no one to one translation, since you can use different words as "after" depending one the overall meaning of the sentence. -て から One of the most common translations and one of the first one learns would be: -て から This shouldn't be confused with the reason-giving から which is not used with ...


15

I think they have the same meaning. The basic difference is that 〜ようになる is commonly used after positive verbs, while 〜くなる is commonly used for negative verbs. Why? Well, negative verbs are morphologically shaped like adjectives, so they have the shorter 〜くなる form available, and that's what people use 99% of the time. That's not possible with positive ...


15

Verb stem (masu-stem) as a noun can have various meanings depending on the original verb, and you may not be able to determine its meaning without referring to a dictionary. I generally recommend you memorize these, and avoid "coining" a new word unless you're really comfortable with Japanese. Person who does the action (≒ -er/-or) 酔っ払い drunkard のぞき peeper ...


15

なって is indeed the te form of なる. 出なく is the morphing of 出ない (the negative form of 出る) to allow it to be connected to another verb. so 出ない + なる becomes 出なくなる (to start not coming out) Adding the te form to the end is just a way of connecting it to another sentence. This can be done to connect any verbs, for example 食べない (negative of 食べる) could become 食べなくなる ...


14

In classical Japanese, 死ぬ is an irregular verb (ナ行変格活用動詞). Its principal parts are as follows: Irrealis (未然形): 死な〜 Continuative (連用形): 死に〜 Predicative (終止形): 死ぬ Attributive (連体形): 死ぬる Realis (已然形): 死ぬれ〜 Imperative (命令形): 死ね The difference between the predicative and attributive forms is roughly analogous to the difference between 〜だ and 〜な for the ...


14

In English, ~ぐらい and ~ごろ mean about, around, approximately. ~ぐらい is used for approximate quantities, which include duration. このXはいくらぐらいですか。About how much is this X? そのXは500円ぐらいです。 That X is about 500 yen. 六時間ぐらい図書館にいました。I was at the library for about 6 hours.  ~ごろ is used for approximate points in time, with an optional に. 八時ごろ(に)公園に来ました。I came to the ...


13

As phoenixheart6 wrote, suffix -さ makes a noun from an adjective. I am not sure if you have a problem with this. But it seems that you have a misunderstanding about the role of に. In a sentence 品揃えの多さについつい買い込んでしまった。 に means “because of.” 買い込む means “to buy many things.” Therefore, it means: Because of the variety of goods they sell, I ended up ...


13

Here's where 歩けなく comes from: Start with the verb 歩く, "to walk". Turn it into its potential form: 歩ける, "able to walk". Make it negative: 歩けない, "unable to walk". Turn the newly formed i-adjective into an adverb: 歩けなく. Now, なっちゃう is a shorter form of なって + しまう. なって, of course, is the -て form of なる, which means "to become". なる requires that the adjective ...


13

無理だったんだ is straightforward, it's a combination of 無理だった ("was impossible") and the explanatory-の. "So it is that it was impossible", "Because it was not possible", "(I failed but) it was impossible (in the first place)", etc. 無理なんだった is usually interpreted as a combination of 無理なんだ ("it's that it's impossible"; present tense) and discovery-た. "(Ah, I've ...


13

「Verb in 連用形{れんようけい} (continuative form) + かかる」 means: "to be about to (verb)", "to be on the point of (verb)ing", etc. The first verb used in this expression can be either in the active or passive voice form. Active or passive, Japanese verbs still inflect in the same manner. Active voice: 「殺し」 is the 連用形 of 「殺す」 「殺しかかった」= "was about to kill" ...


13

The verb is 捨てる, so its て-form is 捨てて, hence the compound form Vて+しまう becomes 捨ててしまう. If it were the casual ちゃう instead of しまう that you were using, that starts from the て-form too, but also contracts the て, so it would instead be 捨てちゃう, with just the one て. Perhaps that is where the confusion arose? Hope that helps!


13

① Grammar pattern The grammar pattern used here is: V(ない form, and drop the い) + なければならない which means "must V", where V is any verb in the plain negative form (ending in ない) . First drop the い and then add なけらばならない 食【た】べない → 食【た】べな →食【た】べなけらばならない。"Must eat". 行【い】かない → 行【い】かな → 行【い】かなければならない。"Must go". 散歩【さんぽ】しない→ 散歩【さんぽ】しな → 散歩【さんぽ】...


12

A short answer: the form 恐るる (おそるる) is the attributive form (連体形; れんたいけい) of the verb 恐る (おそる) in classical Japanese. A long answer is as follows. Classical Japanese has different conjugation rules from modern Japanese. The verb 恐れる (おそれる; to fear) in modern Japanese was 恐る (おそる) in classical Japanese, and its attributive form was 恐るる (おそるる). If I ...


12

Both ず and ぬ came from the archaic negator ず in Heian period. The ず had conjugations ず (未然), ず (連用), ず (終止), ぬ (連体) and ね (仮定), as every Japanese learns in high school today. The ぬ was originally the 連体形 (noun modifying form) of ず. After that, spoken Japanese lost the distinction between 連体形 and 終止形 in almost all cases. So, now we use ぬ or its variant ん as ...


12

Neither of the current answers sit well with me at the moment, so I'm going to risk adding to the confusion by posting another. Question 1 (grammar) First, let's clarify the two verbs in question: 解く solve (a problem) 解ける resolve (itself) (These are not the only definitions, but for the sake of brevity and on-topic-ness we'll go with these.) The ...


12

みえる = to be able to see. (precisely: to be seen/to be in sight) ⇒ Can you see the fujisan? => 富士山が見えますか? みれる = to be able to watch. ⇒ Can you watch DVD with this? => それでDVDが見れますか? The same for 聞ける (Can you listen) vs 聞こえる (Can you hear / precisely: to be heard/to be audible) みえる and きこえる and not a special form of みる and きく, they are specific verbs ...


12

This looks like modern "浮かべる" but it is actually classical "浮かぶ" (四段, "to float") plus what is traditionally taught as the "り" auxiliary verb (助動詞). Etymologically, of course, it is really just "ari" attached to the ren'yokei 連用形/infinitive: /ukabi/ + /ari/ = /ukab(y)eri/, /ukab(y)eru/ adnominally (as in this case). Frellesvig calls this the "morphological ...


12

救われん is made of 救われる and the archaic suffix ん, which came out of む. む・ん had similar rôles to よう・おう today; that is to say, 救われん in modern style would be 救われよう or 救われるだろう. It is not related to the ん that comes out of ぬ, which is a strong or dialectal way of stating a negative. Additionally, as chocolate says in the comments, 祈り信じよ means 'Pray and believe', ...


12

A note on translation Expressing the same ideas in different languages inevitably results in all kinds of things that don't fit very well, if we try to look only at the individual words used in those expressions. This makes things quite difficult for the beginning learner, since we don't yet have a bigger-picture understanding of how a given language works....


12

You should parse it this way: 近所のひとに『カラオケに行こう』と誘われました。 (lit.) I was invited by my neighbor, (saying) "Let's go to Karaoke." ⇒ My neighbor invited me out to Karaoke. / suggested we go to Karaoke. I usually would just use plain form いく. You could rephrase the sentence as: 近所のひとにカラオケに誘われました。 I was invited to Karaoke by my neighbor. ⇒ My neighbor ...


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