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3

In 明鏡’s definition for 下: ❺ 地位・能力・程度・年齢などが劣っていること。また、その人。 「3歳下の弟」 Namely, 下 can refer to the fact that someone’s position, ability, level, or age is lower. In your case it’s age. In the example it uses 歳 instead of つ for the counter, but つ (as well as 個) work for age just fine, albeit slightly informal.


3

Both readings are valid for the kanji 紅葉. According to this page, the usage is as follows: こうよう is mostly used to refer to the red/yellow autumn leaves before they fall, as well as to the scenery/images [involving them]. もみじ is mostly used to refer to the tree itself, or especially to the tree(s) that show the autumn colors The first word can be used as ...


8

They are not "vague" from the Japanese standpoint. Seen from the opposite side, I must say English is equally confusing. How do you distinguish 胃 and 腹 when they are both "stomach" in English? How do you distinguish 恋 and 愛 when both are "love" in English? How about 兄/弟 ("brother"), 胡椒/唐辛子 ("pepper"), ごはん/米/稲 ("rice"), 水/湯 ("water"), 絵/写真 ("picture"), 便所/風呂 (...


4

I would interpret it like this: 女性が生む子どもの数 The number of children that women give birth to. 女性一人が生む子どもの数 The number of children that one woman gives birth to. In other words, the number of children born per woman.


4

I asked a Japanese person about this sentence, and her explanation is that adding ほうだ at the end of the sentence "softens" the statement. In other words, it adds a feeling of uncertainity or relativity to the statement, i.e. a feeling that the speaker is not completely sure about what he or she is saying. I also found an answer in a Q&A forum that ...


7

It is the following definition on 明鏡国語辞典: ❺ 《「…━だ」の形で、連体修飾句を受けて》どちらかというとその部類に属する意を表す。 「背は高い━だ」 「これだけできれば上出来の━だ」 Your sentence says that if the world was divided into the countries that work "long" hours and those that don't, Japan would belong among the countries that work "long" hours. 日本の労働時間は世界でも長い。(Japan's working hours are long even ...


10

If I were translating these sentences naturally but relatively 'faithfully' into English, I'd probably go for the following: 日本の労働時間は世界でも長いほうだ。 Working hours in Japan are on the long(er) side, even globally. Working hours in Japan are at the long(er) end, even globally. ~ ~ ~ 日本の労働時間は世界でも長い。 Working hours in Japan are long, even ...


0

This may be incorrect but I have a hypothesis. 限る means “someone or something limits” 限定する means “someone limits”. 限定された時間 is only used like when a doctor allows a patient to go out in limited time. 限られた時間 is also used in that way and like when a person is too busy and has little time to listen to his favorite songs. But 限定的 definitely has the meaning “...


-1

限定する is usually used to describe the action to limit something. 限る (of this meaning) can also be used for the action but is more about describing the state of limitation. No one is more formal for this verb form. For example, 申し込みを一人一枚に限定する means "To limit the application to one per person", and 申し込みは一人一枚に限る means "The application is limited to one per ...


-2

It literally means silver-haired (A beautiful expression of white hair due to aging) people. Also, this term is mostly used to sell something, so usually it means old but somewhat healthy old people, mostly 65 to 75 years old in Japan IMO.


4

It appears to depend upon which organization or company is assigning the designation. Usually using 65 to 70 years of age as a lower threshold. This is similar to varying ages for 'senior discounts' (in the US anyways). Here is a page from NTT Facilities Research, which lists a few terms regarding the elderly relative to age.


5

貯金 = to put money in the bank or a piggy bank or envelope. 節約 = to avoid spending money (i.e., to make food rather than eat out) Both of these are [漢語]{かんご} (Chinese words in Japanese). 貯金 follows a verb-object pattern. Thus, 貯(v) store 金(object) - money 節約 follows a duplication pattern: 節(v) -save 約 - save So you can do lots of things to 節約, but ...


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