Assuming you are not asking for the historical origin, the uncontracted form of 'っこない' is 'ことはない'. Your sentence becomes お前には分かることはないでしょう
こと means here something like event or situation, so ' V + ことはない' (more) literally means that the situation where V happens is impossible. Hence, the construction means 'there is no way ...', as you already see.
My major is not linguistics but I found some interesting references for you.
Aoki introduces a few types of classification of transitive/intransitive verbs in Japanese.
The first classification is written by Kuginuki. It says there are 3 patterns of transitive/intransitive verb pairs.
Depending on the type of conjugation (第Ⅰ群形式)
知る (四段活用 is an ...
I found several people who think らぐ is some kind of suffix, but looks like this is not explicitly listed in dictionaries as a standalone suffix. If らぐ is a suffix, it should be similar in purpose to English -ate used to turn words into verbs (e.g., formulate, activate).