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1

I'll answer one of your questions. how do you know the correct reading if you come across a kanji you dont know? You know the correct reading because you recognize the kanji as part of a word that you know. When you see, let's say, the word 自動車{じどうしゃ} (automobile), there is no mental process such as "ah, its 自{じ} + 動{どう} + 車{しゃ}, じ - どう - しゃ, wa-lah, ...


0

What is the purpose of these obscure readings? It is a question that would lead to the entire Begriffsgeschichte of kun'yomi, but in a quick understanding, those kun readings are a different notion from those in discussion of Japanese orthography. Kanji dictionaries are conceptually a form of Chinese-Japanese dictionary. Thus as what I wrote in another ...


1

I'd hate to throw the "there's an app for that" answer at you, but there indeed are such apps. Some make you write it with finger on screen, some let you point the camera at the kanji in question and recognize it for you. https://www.appbank.net/2020/06/10/iphone-application/1859201.php


5

JIS 0208 is frozen in development, in two versions (with different glyph forms): as JIS X 0208:1997 (the 1990 forms) and as JIS X 0208 (2004 forms). It has basically never revised its contents since 1997, and only once, in 2004, corrected the particular forms of the glyphs in it. 人名用, however, are in constant development. Especially important was the case of ...


0

Though different from the example you gave, there are examples where the furigana even contradicts the okurigana(!!) For example, the word [崇まふ]{あがまう} - the furigana there gives the pronunciation of the entire word - has a spelling which ends in ふ, but the pronunciation ends with う. Another example is [目合ひ]{まぐわい} - there is no ひ at the end of the ...


9

The cause is most likely that your font setting (of a program or OS) have gone wrong. As far as I can see the said character in the input box looks rendered with a Chinese font. The glyph you see and the intended Japanese one share the same meaning and the same code point in Unicode (Han unification). Thus computers cannot tell which is which binary-wise, ...


4

図 ("zu") is a word that primarily refers to technical diagrams and illustrations. A typical 図 is something shown in this page: Technical illustrations are also 図, but artistic illustrations are not. The English word "figure" has many meanings. 図 refers to "figure" as in "This research paper has one table and four figures&...


0

The Kanji Learner's Course lists this kanji with the keyword "drawing". It's not strictly the meaning of the kanji, but most of the time words containing 図 will be related to that meaning. Kanji, in general, don't have a meaning directly translatable to English. Some examples: 図書館 (toshokan) Library 図鑑 (zukan) Pictorial book 図表 (zuhyou) Diagram


6

EDIT: With some more research, I found the reason. As I expected, it's due to historical unification of JIS X kanji with Unicode codepoints. Here's a GitHub thread about the issue, including precisely the two characters you asked about. The tl;dr is that the Japanese codepoints corresponding to those characters, which were unified with the Simplified Chinese ...


1

Etymologically, in Chinese, 濠 or 壕 (depending on whether it is watered or dry) is the character that represents the word háo "moat, trench". 堀 is a now rare variant of 窟, which stands for the word kū "cave, burrow, hole", and does not have the same meaning as the former. However, in Japanese, the notion "moat" is represented by ...


1

堀 refers to artificial ditches in general. 壕 is a dry version, and 濠 is a wet version filled with water. Practically, I kind of feel 壕 and 濠 tend to be used in military contexts, whereas 堀 tends to refer to permanent and beautiful ones surrounding large castles. Note that 壕 and 濠 are phono-sementic kanji; the left parts (土 = soil and 氵 = water) contribute to ...


3

From Wikipedia: 日本における漢字表記では濠太剌利とされ、またそこから濠洲(ごうしゅう)とも呼ばれる。「連邦」を付け濠洲連邦(濠洲聯邦)ということもある。「濠」「洲」は常用漢字の「豪」「州」を代用して豪太剌利・豪洲・豪州と書くことも多い。 Your previous confusion of 濠 and 豪 actually makes sense in this context, as 「濠太剌利」「濠洲{ごうしゅう}」「豪洲{ごうしゅう}」are all ateji. Basically the idea is when a non-Chinese foreign word like "Australia" comes to Japan, an attempt is ...


0

According to Weblio's EJJE (English to Japanese to English) dictionary, it is indeed primarily associated with Australia and 豪州 is indeed pronounced as ごうしゅう (Gōshū). But it looks like the character is also an archaic alternative to 偉{えら}い (great, superior, successful) and also to 剛{ごう} (bold, strong, manly). There's more detail on Weblio's Japanese ...


2

It's the old/traditional form of 遂 (the second character you listed). You can see it under Korean Hanja in this wiktionary page.


6

According to the official 常用漢字表, the difference between components 飠 and 𩙿 is that of handwriting and printing standard. It is reiterated in the document that such two shapes are equivalent, along with the list of many other ignorable stroke-level and component-level variants. The printing standard glyphs in Japanese are basically following the style of ...


2

As others have noted, this appears to be part of the Unicode Han-character unification, where minor differences between character forms were ignored when assigning code points to individual glyphs during the process of setting up the Unicode specification for the Han characters. Since a single code point was assigned for multiple character forms, they ...


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