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0

There are two kinds of passive happening here: straightforward passive, and honorific passive. Straightforward passive This is your basic, garden-variety passive: something is being done. Your analysis of the に in あなたに向けられる視線が is correct: this is not the instrumental に, but rather the directional に. However, your analysis of the verb isn't quite right. ...


1

The immediate question This に is the locative に indicating where something is happening. どこ​[に]{●}​立【た】ちますか。 Where [LOC] stand [question mark]. → Where [do you] stand? ここ​[に]{●}​立【た】ちます。 Here [LOC] stand. → [I] stand here. In your sample sentence, the に tells us where the action is taking place -- specifically, where その巨大【きょだい】な学園【...


2

あなたに幸せになってほしい。 This sentence implies encouraging the listener when the speaker will help the partner need to be happy. In a similar way, next sentence is also kind of encouragement. 私はあなたが彼に英語を教えてほしい。 I request/ask you to teach English. This is the mix of emphatic "が" to specify the person and requesting/asking them to. While, 冬が早く来て欲しい。I expect/...


0

In sentences like this, is it ungrammatical or unnatural to say Nがなく instead of Nなく? Basically, yes. The role of <Noun>なく is explained in the answer linked in Chocolate's comment, but what's important here is that it behaves like an adverb. Generally if you say <Noun>がなく, you are making a statement and ない is the verb. This なく is functionally ...


0

It seems to me that ~につれて is the structure that will convey the best your idea. Your attempt works fine: 時間が経つにつれて、彼が言いたかったことがわかってきました。 Maybe ~えば、~ほど could work out fine as well. You could also try and spice up your sentence by replacing 時間が経つ with other expressions, such as mentioned in this QA. Perhaps something like this would be fine: 経験を積めば積むほど、...


3

So, the simple answer to your question is that 遅々として is a set phrase, and is used commonly enough with 進まない that the whole thing is in the dictionary as a set phrase. That said, it's also worth keeping in mind that not every instance of とする and として necessarily have to be mean as. とする has quite a few different usages, and it can also just come about ...


2

In this context, と is used to refer to the preceding phrase, or 学生時代にもっと勉強すればよかった. This is because we can consider that と is a part of と思う and that 思う is omitted from the sentence. Indeed, by inserting 思う, we can paraphrase the sentence as follows: (1) 学生時代にもっと勉強すればよかったと,今ではとても残念に思う. (I should have studied more in my school years. Now I deeply regret ...


1

According to N1N2N3外国人のための日本語学習ブログ : 日本語能力試験2級文法 ~を通して/~を通じて/~によって, 1.[名詞]+を通(とお)して/[名詞]+を通(つう)じて= 「~をとおって(to go/pass through)」「直接ではなく間に何か入って」「ずっと~」という意味。 「~を通して、〜を通じて」 is used to express "the experience; go/pass thorough", "doing something using the medium such as person or things", "throughout ~". 体験を通して、学んだことは忘れない。「~をとおって(to go/pass through)」 You ...


0

見つけない implies that something was lost and you are looking for it. 見当たらない means that you are looking for something and you cannot see it in your immediate vicinity (as the word implies, within your field of vision). I often use this phrase when looking for something on a piece of paper or a webpage.


3

「意外と」 works as an adverb here, and it's not 意外 + と. 「意外と」 has almost the same meaning as 「意外に」, so in this case, 「意外と早かったね」 means "it was faster than I expected." For the slight difference between 「意外と」and 「意外に」, see this post (Is there any difference between 意外に and 意外と?). In some cases, adverbs end with 「と」. For example, 「自然に」and 「自然と」has almost the same ...


4

No, ためか and ために don't mean the same thing -- just as か and に do not mean the same thing. The か in ためか is the same か used as the verbal question mark. This indicates uncertainty and indefiniteness. (Separately, I'm pretty sure you have a typo, where ささまい should be ささない instead.) If the sentence said あまり日がささないため[に]{●}, that would be a definite reason. ...


4

Welcome to Stack Exchange, and thanks for your question! To answer your question, no, たらと does not represent two conditionals together. The と here is being used as a quoting particle, while the たら is the usual conditional. The verb that follows the と is the expression ため息をつく, which means "sigh" or "breathe a sigh". As such, what comes before the と marks ...


4

It's conditional-たら followed by quotative-と. Adding some punctuation should help you parse this correctly: 「この熱意を勉強に向けてくれたら」と、ため息をつくこともしばしばだ。 It's common for me to sigh, thinking "If only he channeled his passion to studying!" You can end a sentence with たら/れば/etc to say "If only ~!". How do you say "If only things were different"? ...


4

verb + かどうか is a grammar pattern that roughly means either of: (forming an embedded question) "whether or not" What does this usage of 「かどうか」mean? VかV-negか vs. V | V-neg vs. Vかどうか (forming an no-adjective-like phrase) "may or may not", "problem of whether or not", "whether-A-or-B situation" Understanding ~かどうかだ In your example, かどうか is used in the ...


3

This point with ~と(certain verbs) is discussed in the N1 grammar 過去問題集 by ドリル&ドリル. There is a difference between を and と for me but I don't feel comfortable explaining it. Anyhow, I think that explaining exactly what と is doing will help a bit. Explanation by grammar resource The discussion is an elaboration on this sentence: ...


6

I suppose the simple answer is that the grammar of the past is different. First of all, in Classical Japanese 臨む would be the 連体形 (basically dictionary form). Unlike in modern Japanese, the 連体形 doesn't have to be nominalized to be used with が. Secondly, the classical が worked a lot like the modern day の to attribute things. From 大辞林 (emphasis mine): ...


5

如し is an archaic Japanese adjective used like modern (の)ようだ. It takes a noun followed by either の or が. This is still used in some set phrases and archaistic sentences. 夢の如し。 = 夢のようだ。 = (It) is like a dream. 龍が如く戦へり。 = 龍のように戦った。 = (He) fought like a dragon. This が is not a subject marker. が was used for the possessive meaning just like modern の in archaic ...


1

臨む is 連体形 so the particle between it and ごとし has to be が. Still, 深淵に臨むよう and 深淵に臨むが如し is same meaning. Only the latter is saying difficulty and cool.


4

Welcome to Japanese stack exchange! Your understanding of the sentence is correct, though you should be sure to translate the が, as "but", which I think adds the contrast needed to make your sentence sound less "wonky"! The answer provided by the book is fine, too. か can be used between two nouns can mean "or", in an exclusive sense. As such, 「朝か晩に」 would ...


5

As a native Japanese speaker, I'd rather explain my own feeling or thoughts at the times facing of someone saying those sentences: 1) いつか願いが叶うと信じている。 He/she has "made" him/herself believe something - or he/she consiously defines his/her beliefs as such. 2) いつか願いが叶うのを信じている。/ いつか願いが叶うことを信じている。 He/she believes something. Basically those sentences are ...


1

Until/unless ~ happens or is done, ... cannot happen or be done either. Used in negating or negative statements. I agree with the definition of ~てからでなければ in this sentence. 4時に起きてからでなければ飛行機の時間には間に合わない。 Until/unless you wake up at 4 o'clock, you cannot arrive the time of departure of flight. This is a weird situation isn't it? If you wake up before 4 o'...


4

が is emphasizing the noun before it than に. あなたに幸せになってほしい I want you to be happy. あなたが幸せになってほしい I want YOU to be happy. It's not common and must be some important meaning on 'you'. More like dialogue in a movie. Although I feel your second example is simply wrong. In this case we should use に. Even it has to be "you" who teach him English.


3

The word 戦前 normally refers specifically to the pre-WWII period. To say "before the battle", 戦闘前 or 戦いの前 is used. 戦前、 In the prewar period, 軍関連の場合は if an organization was military-related, 旭日旗を使うのが常識だったのでしょう。 I suppose the use of The Rising Sun (as the flag design of the organization) was taken for granted. Your rough understanding of the ...


3

In the former example, その is working like its in English, where そ is it and の is possessive -s. In the latter, この/その is like the/that/this in English. Compare: 山の中に家がありました。その屋根は鮮やかな赤色でした。 → その = "its (roof)" 山の中に家がありました。その/この家には煙突がありました。 → その/この = "the/this (house)" When その is working like its, it is not interchangeable with この. When その is ...


8

「急{いそ}いでるみたいだけど間{ま}に合{あ}ったとして赤点回避{あかてんかいひ}なんてできると思{おも}ってるの」 Because practically no punctuations are used in manga, I get to place some here. 「急いでるみたいだけど、間に合ったとして (comma optional here) 赤点回避なんてできると思ってるの ?」 Firstly, this is basically a question. Secondly, you seem to be "seeing" the wrong 「として」here. This 「として」 is conditional -- "even if". I could end ...


0

First of all, welcome to the Japanese Stackexchange! 「よう」 can be used in many different patterns and you can combine it with nouns, adjectives verbs and so on (check out this excellent answer about it). However, if I were to simplify it to the core, it basically means "like" or "similar to". For example: 面白【おもしろ】い本。Interesting book 面白い【おもしろい】ような本。...


3

On my phone so this will be an abbreviated answer, but ならでは has two (related) usages: 1 (多く「ならではの」の形で)ただ…だけ。「日本ならではの習慣だ」. 2 (多く、下に打消しの語を伴って)…でなくては。…以外には。「下町ならでは見ることのできない光景」 You are probably trying to apply meaning 1, but it’s meaning 2 here (as can be seen by the accompanying negative). It is indeed odd that the meanings are almost opposite one ...


1

As you (probably) know, ~なる means "to become". For ナ-adjectives and nouns, it is preceded by に, such as 友達になる, 元気になる, etc. For イ-adjectives and words that conjugate like them, it is preceded by the "adverbial" ~く form; 新しくなる, 明るくなる, 行きたくなる ("become wanting to go"), etc. This is just a case of the ~ない form of the verbー取れない (which conjugates like an イ-adj.)...


4

「Time Word + 限{かぎ}り + で」 means: "at the end of [Time Word]" I could not think of another meaning since this is pretty much a fixed expression. A little more formal and fairly stiff expression with the same meaning would be: 「Time Word + を + 限{かぎ}り + に」 Therefore, the sentence: 「山本{やまもと}さんは今月限{こんげつかぎ}りで退職{たいしょく}します。」 can only mean: "Yamamoto-...


5

「早{はや}くしないと置{お}いてっちゃいますよ。」 First of all, let us make sure who does what in this sentence because as usual, none of that is mentioned in it. Listener's action: 早くしない 「と」 is conditional Speaker's action: 置いてっちゃいます So, the grammatical subject changes mid-way. The main clause is the second half, so the subject of the sentence as a whole is the unmentioned "...


6

A Does だけ replace any particles or do I have to combine every particle with だけ? e.g. だけを、だけが、だけに ... For the most part, it depends on the formality level of the sentence or rather, the context or situation. In informal speech, we often use 「だけ」 without a particle attached to it. This is true especially with 「を」. Girls occasionally tell me 「アタシだけ見て!」 ...


4

A. You can use しか~ない. For, example, 私しか彼女の秘密を知らない is the same meaning as 私だけ彼女の秘密を知っている. B. 私は日本の本だけを読む is natural, but 私は日本の本をだけ読む is unnatural. To modify a verb with だけ, だけ is placed behind a verb. not in front of a verb. It is 私は日本の本を読むだけ。For example, 後は、家に帰って寝るだけ. To modify a noun with だけ、だけ is generally placed behind a noun. However I notice that ...


-2

Yes, you can use ni there. Shiken no toki ni jisho o minai de kudasai! This sentence is grammatically correct and actually used. A web site https://oshiete.goo.ne.jp/qa/98363.html explains the reason:  2)「時間の名詞」が複合の形をとる場合、例えば、「おととい」という時間を表わす名詞にさらに「朝」という時間を表わす名詞がついて「おとといの朝」などという形になる場合はやや複雑で、「あしたの昼、テニスをします」と助詞を伴わずにも使われますし,「あしたの昼に、テニスをします」と助詞を伴っても使われます。...


1

Legally she cannot do this. Under Japanese law you can only have one surname registered on your residence and family register documents. If her husband is Japanese, then she will have to change her family name to his (as he is head of the household). If her husband is a foreigner, she is permitted to keep her family name (and is legally head of the household)...


-1

As you have no doubt realized, the base-て conjugation of verbs is used for more than just imperative commands. I'm sure you've seen many cases where you have a grammar structured as with the ~て + _____ structure. What you are seeing is something that is not uncommon. What is happening is that the speaker/writer is using the masu form of a verb to maintain ...


3

山を越える has an idiomatic meaning, which means "to pass the peak situation of something". For example, 彼女の病気の山は越えたよ(The worst situation of her illness was over), 明日でこの仕事は山は(orを)越えるだろう(The most important part of this job will be done tomorrow) and so on.


3

This ~きて means ~来て (to come) おいてきて(置いて来て) literally means (I put and came here) Putting it together: 店にけいたい電話おいてきてしまった I left my phone at the store (lit. I put my phone at the store and came here unintentionally) Japanese often indicates the motion following the verb: ペンを買ってくる - to buy and bring a pen here トイレに行ってくる - to go to the toilet and come ...


4

「笑える」は多分学校で習うと思います。早速それで検索して見ると「教えてgoo」にも類似の質問があった様です。 「難しくて泣ける」「思わず笑える」の文法的説明 以下回答No2.からの抜粋です。 自発か可能かは、前後の関係で決まると認識しています。 自発 = 自然とそういう状況になる 可能 = 意思を持ってすればそういう状況になる 1.「数学の授業が難しくて泣ける」: 泣きたい意思はないはず・・・自発 2.「思わず笑える」・・・思わずだから、笑う意思にかかわらず・・自発 例、(落語の)あそこは笑える・・・可能・・笑いを得たくて落語を聞く 論文では、 現代日本語の自発に関する研究 ――受身・可能との関連を視野に入れて―― *第4章p63以降 可能動詞による自発表現 ―― ...


5

So this is an interesting translation, because what is actually being said, and the translation do not have the same literal meaning, but they carry the same general meaning as a figure of speech. In short, a Japanese idiom is being translated to an English idiom. 山は越えたよ。 Literally translates to: I crossed over the mountain. 山 = mountain は = ...


5

「どうしても話してくれと言われれば、話さないこともない。」 Your TL attempt of that is: "You can speak if you are asked to do so." The truth is, however, that the subject throughout the sentence is the unmentioned "I", the first person. 「言われれば」 is in the passive-voice form -- "If I were told", "If I were asked", etc. The subject of 「話さないこともない」 is also the speaker himself. Thus, ...


1

This a very restricted use of がち. Typical がち meaning Your basic understanding of がち as a "接尾語" is correct: it indicates a tendency or something happening often, and can be constructed with a host of base words, as in 病気がち, 遅れがち, etc. It can, grammatically speaking, and in this meaning, be suffixed to any word. Which ones are acceptable or not is only a ...


11

まだ固いつぼみを見つけ出して、これにあたたかい春の風を送り、花に育てる The direct object of 育てる is left out. It's これ, i.e. まだ固いつぼみ, "firm buds". It's 「(これ(=まだ固いつぼみ)を)花に育てる」, "bring up (firm buds) into flowers". そこへゆくと、[まだ固いつぼみを見つけ出して、これにあたたかい春の風を送り、花に育てる]編集のしごとはそれ自体が一つの芸術である。 Means something along the lines of... In contrast, the work of editing [where you find firm buds, tend them ...


9

Your sentences are grammatical and natural-sounding (except for the use of 「病気になる」, which I will come back to later). We say: 「Action A + の + が + 速{はや}すぎて + Action B」 ← The 「の」 is a nominalizer. 「Action A + 方{かた} + が + 速{はや}すぎて + Action B」 ← Use the continuative form for the verb in Action A -- 食べ方、歩き方、話し方、やり方, etc. 「Action A + の/方 + が + 速すぎる/...


1

Yes, it also works with na-adjectives and nouns. 蛇{へび}でも買いたい。 I want to buy it, even if it were a snake. 静{しず}かでも勉強できない。 I am unable to study, even if it were quiet.


3

Second question was regarding the あんた - is it refering to me, the reader or the person playing the namahage? It's the person doing the personality test aka you. One might for example in a personality test see things like: 子供時代、あなたがよくしていた遊びは? あなたはインドア派? アウトドア派? Now my first question was, is the ~をして here actually part of the ~をしめる ...


-1

Now my first question was, is the ~をして here actually part of the ~をしめる construction or does ナマハゲをして mean "while you were out playing namahage"?* In some sense yes. It is the construction of ~をして ... ~をしめる construction. As in your link, 「言わしめる」の言葉の使い方は、「自分(相手)にそのように言わせるだけの理由・根拠・価値などがある場合」 And, the following example sentence 「ペレをしてサッカーの神童と言わしめた少年がいました」, 「...


4

Just weighing in to say that I found this entry regarding ためらいがちに: 思い切ることができず、半ば思いとどまりながら物事を行うさま。躊躇しつつ行う様子。 "To perform an action with the underlying thought of giving it up; not being able to make up one's mind completely. To perform an action hesitantly." So I'd say you're correct in your assessment. Somebody else may answer you on your made-up ...


5

This ひとつ refers to an age (difference). Also note that いくつ can mean "how old" in Japanese. いくつになったの? How old are you now? みっつ! Three!


4

First of all, I want to make sure that everyone understands that in both: 「~を問{と}わず」 and 「~がどうかは問題なく、どれにも同じことが言える。」, the 「~」 part will always be a noun or noun phrase. Both mean "regardless of (noun)" even though the latter obviously sounds explanatory. Now, let us pick an actual noun to replace the "~" so that things will hopefully become ...


13

① Grammar pattern The grammar pattern used here is: V(ない form, and drop the い) + なければならない which means "must V", where V is any verb in the plain negative form (ending in ない) . First drop the い and then add なけらばならない 食【た】べない → 食【た】べな →食【た】べなけらばならない。"Must eat". 行【い】かない → 行【い】かな → 行【い】かなければならない。"Must go". 散歩【さんぽ】しない→ 散歩【さんぽ】しな → 散歩【さんぽ】...


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