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2

Yes. There is the difference what environment to be mentioned. However, I think the difference is already almost listed up in the definition you gave. 野外{やがい} seems corresponding really well between English and Japanese. But, "suburbs" is bit odd to me. If you are in 「野外{やがい}」, there should be few buildings around you. So, the word is not really relevant ...


1

勝った is the -ta form of 勝つ, and normally indicates past-tense, but in this case it actually is indicating the perfect. A literal translation would be something like “(With this) he has won.” — that is, as a reaction to something that has happened. The な is the standard masculine sentence-ending particle, which adds a sense of confidence in one’s statement (...


3

That is not a bad translation at all. In fact, that is what the phrase means most of the time. 「勝{か}ったな」, even though it may take the past tense grammatically, is usually said before the game/match, etc. is over rather than after. It is said when it looks as though it is almost certain that you or your team will be the winner. That is to say that the ...


-2

It's past tense of 勝つ, 'won'. Idk why the translation is in future tense.


5

Yes, this い is the same as い as in だい or がい. From 明鏡国語辞典 第二版: い 終助 ① 《質問の文の後に付いて》くだけた調子で、親しみの意をこめる。 「これは何じゃい」「もう少し待ってみるかい?」 ② 《肯定や命令の文の後に付いて》意味を強める。 「早くしろい」「いやだい、ぼくがやるんだい」 【語法】 助動詞「だ」「じゃ」などに付いた「だい」「じゃい」、終助詞「か」「わ」「な」に付いた「かい」「わい」「ない」、動詞の命令形に付いた「ろい」などの形で使う。 In modern Japanese, Definition ② (non-questioning sentence-end い, such as ...


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