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1

As surmised in your question, and confirmed by user3856370 in the comment, 帰【かえ】る ("to return", intransitive") is a 五段【ごだん】 verb, and this is why たい needs that り before it. The grammar More specifically, the ~たい desiderative ("want to") ending attaches to the 連用形【れんようけい】, the continuative or stem form of the verb. This is sometimes called the "-masu stem" ...


3

「二年間{にねんかん}の景気後退期{けいきこうたいき}を過{す}ぎれば、この国{くに}の経済{けいざい}は最悪{さいあく}の状態{じょうたい}を脱{だっ}するかもしれません。」 「~~を過ぎる」, in this context, means "to get through". 「過ぎれば」 is indeed in the conditional form. "If (we) get through the two-year recession, this country's economy might be out of the worst situation."


0

In verb conjugations, beginning students are typically taught only a single usage for a verb conjugation. Base-II (or ます form) conjugation, or the い conjugation, is commonly taught as the form that is used for the ます form of verbs. While this is true, the ます form is not the only usage that it has. One of the more common usages for base-II conjugation is ...


1

勝った is the -ta form of 勝つ, and normally indicates past-tense, but in this case it actually is indicating the perfect. A literal translation would be something like “(With this) he has won.” — that is, as a reaction to something that has happened. The な is the standard masculine sentence-ending particle, which adds a sense of confidence in one’s statement (...


3

That is not a bad translation at all. In fact, that is what the phrase means most of the time. 「勝{か}ったな」, even though it may take the past tense grammatically, is usually said before the game/match, etc. is over rather than after. It is said when it looks as though it is almost certain that you or your team will be the winner. That is to say that the ...


-2

It's past tense of 勝つ, 'won'. Idk why the translation is in future tense.


4

You don't seem to be parsing it correctly, I'm afraid... I think you could probably parse it as something like... [〝正しいこと〟なんて描くつもりも]、[描ける程、自分を上等とも思ってい]ないけど... And you could split it to: →〝正しいこと〟なんて描くつもりもない + (〝正しいこと〟が)描ける程、自分を上等とも思っていないけど... 「XXもYYも~~ない」(or 「XXもないしYYも~~ない」) = "neither XX nor YY"


0

カードで払うことができますか。 am i able to pay with a credit card (at this store)? カードで払ってもいいですか。 may i pay with a credit card (at this store)? I agree with Kaskade's comment. Ability vs Permission. In the case of the credit card example, you are able to use 払うことができますか because the store may not be physically able to process your credit card (lack of a credit card ...


0

They are not equivalent. The difference between the two is that of ability vs. permission. In English, both of these concepts can be expressed using "can", which is the reason why Google Translate offers the same result here. So these two sentences actually mean: (1) Am I able to pay by card? (2) Am I allowed to pay by card? / May I pay by card? I ...


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