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3

No, short for 出ちゃってはいけません would be 出ちゃっちゃいけません. ~ては itself contracts to ~ちゃ (compare ではない and じゃない), so 出ちゃいけません is a contracted form of 出てはいけません. This kind of contraction is extremely common.


1

Notice also that "imasu" was not written "居ます" and "sumimasen" was not written "済みません" Many words have kanji, but that doesn't mean the kanji needs to be always used. In this case, the reason is likely because the sentence comes from the PDF file that you gave us, which is for English-speaking people that are trying to ...


7

There is no requirement to write words in kanji. A sentence written entirely in hiragana would still be valid (if somewhat hideous to read). Your PDF is clearly beginner level learning material. I would guess that the writers of the material decided that the kanji for 測る was too advanced to learn at that level. According to this site this kanji isn't learnt ...


5

Volitionals and Non-Volitionals 意志動詞【いしどうし】 and 無意志動詞【むいしどうし】 are verbs that have "volition" or verbs without "volition". Volition in this context is the ability of the agent to control the action. In a volitional verb, the verb is an expression of the agent's will. Non-volitionals, on the other hand, are verbs that are not controlled by ...


6

稼ぐ primarily means "to earn money", but its object can be almost any intangible thing gained through hard work. 点数を稼ぐ to get scores (sports) マイルを稼ぐ to earn miles 経験値を稼ぐ to grind experience points (game) 時間を稼ぐ is usually translated as "to buy time". The verb used is different, but this is a set phrase you have to remember. Note that this ...


2

ご存じ is not a verb in the first place. It's a honorific no-adjective that has to be used with だ/です. You can think it roughly corresponds to "familiar/aware" with respectful feelings. I don't know why, but there is no direct honorific version of 知っている. Whenever you want to say "someone knows something" with respect, you have to use this no-...


2

So, I'm assuming that this is either from the weblio entry or the kotobank entry of という, which are basically identical. You are understanding the first part of the sentence correctly. However, the second clause after the comma is not a restatement of the first clause. それを強調する意を表す expresses emphasis of that. "That", here refers to the time phrase/...


1

「くれる」、「もらう」、「あげる」is a special words describing direction of verb. (Of course it's can be used as usual words too) Explanation below is not theoretical stuff but my own experience. And English is not my mother language, so my explanation may be little bit complicated Using these words we can understand if A person doing something for B person or opposite. In ...


3

They are grammatically different. ご飯を食べている人 is "person who is having a meal". This phrase ご飯を食べている modifies 人. Nominalization with の is used for nominalizing a phrase or sentence. This phrase ラーメンをたべる is nominalized by using の such as ラーメンをたべるの. For example, ラーメンを食べる人が好き(I like the person who eats ramen), ラーメンを食べるのが好き(I like eating ramen).


2

の marks a word modifying the word after it. In AのB, A modifies B. In the first example, 日本語 is modifying 勉強. When you write 日本語の勉強, you are essentially saying "Study of Japanese" or "Japanese study". "Japanese Study" is the object of する. The literal translation of your first example would be: 私は日本語の勉強をしました。 I did Japanese ...


2

It depends on the formality of the audience, but the expected translations in a formal register would be ご覧の通り or ご覧のように, with 見ての通り being a possibility in a more relaxed register.


6

You misunderstand, likely due to the challenges of translation and of explaining one language using the words and constructions of another. Verbs like 潰【つぶ】れる and 漬【つ】かる are not passive, but rather stative -- they describe the state of something. For 潰【つぶ】れる, the meaning is not passive "to be crushed by someone or something". Instead, it may be ...


0

According to the question azimicat posted in the comments, 済ませる【すませる】 most likely really is used for negative/upleasant things.


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