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1

By "volitional", I think I understand you to mean what are also called "will verbs" or "controllable verbs" in English, 意志動詞 in Japanese; and by "non-volitional", "non-will verbs" or "uncontrollable verbs", 無意志動詞 in Japanese? The term "volitional" here is possibly a bit confusing just given it is the name of a verb form, too, so I will just use "...


4

というの asks rhetorical questions (it's literally just と, 言う, and の). If your mom told you to keep studying for a long time you might say something like 死ぬまで勉強しろというのか "you want me to study until I die, is that it?!" Or, more literally "are you telling (言う) me to study until I die?!" As you can see it's a bit difficult to line up the tenses between the two ...


3

The core part of your question has been explained in detail in this question: When is Vている the continuation of action and when is it the continuation of state? 判明する is a "instant state change" (aka "punctual") verb. 判明する: It turns out / It will turn out 判明した: It turned out 判明している: It has been turned out = It is known (continuation of state) So 判明した refers ...


0

I don't know if this makes sense, but 掴む is more focused on the "action" of grabbing something, while 捕まえる is more focused on the "result" (i.e. the fact that "you manage to get something to a state where it no longer moves freely". Trying to illustrate, as fish are so slippery that they are hard to catch by bare hands, I guess you could say "あの魚を捕まえないな。だって、...


0

To my native ears it sounds a bit poetic. Not verbal. Not necessarily old-fashioned.


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