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This is a linguistic phenomenon called "calque" or "loan translation". In Japanese, it is called 「翻訳借用{ほんやくしゃくよう}」. A calque is a word that has been borrowed from another language by the method of literally translating the foreign word "component-by-component". This is, therefore, a completely different method from homophonic translation (aka '...


8

Is it by any chance the case that, historically, the い-adjective ending 〜かった is a contraction originating from 〜くあった, where あった is the past inflection of ある? That's exactly what you're seeing. For ~い adjectives, there were three base conjugation forms: ~し -- 終止形【しゅうしけい】: terminal / conclusive, for ending a sentence of clause. ~き -- 連体形【れんたいけい】: ...


4

That is indeed correct. The -く form is the 連用形 (infinitive) of the adjectives, and from the earliest times it had the possibility to attach the verb -ar as an auxiliary to ease the further conjugation in the verbal categories (such as negation, mood, aspect). But, with the great reshuffle of the verbal paradigm during Late Middle Japanese (Ashikaga shogunate)...


4

Native Japanese speaker here. So as @l'électeur pointed out, 「人孔」 would in theory fall under this umbrella of a calque. However, in this case, 「マンホール」is far, far more common. In the 18 years I've lived in Japan, I've heard the word「人孔」exactly 0 times. That's how common (or rather, uncommon) it is. In fact, you said 「そこの人孔に気をつけてください。」 to someone on the ...


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It is indeed quite common to give names which are (partially) intended as names from Western languages, for example (女)えりか、えみり、まりえ、もにか、にいな or (男)れお、れおん、ろびん、れい、… Of course some names lend themselves to this process more than others and it is not at all uncommon to use kanji to write the name, for example 愛利歌【えりか】 or 玲旺【れお】. The child can nevertheless use the ...


2

Reading / Spelling As you noticed, 退がる is not a normal collocation of kanji and okurigana. Referring to my copy of Shogakukan's Kokugo Dai Jiten (online version here), 退 has the following recognized kun'yomi: 退る【しさる】 退く【しぞく】 退く【しりぞく】 退ける【しりぞける】 退る【すさる】 退く【そく】 退く【どく】 退かす【どかす】 退ける【どける】 退く【のく】 退かす【のかす】 退ける【のける】 退く【ひく】 退ける【ひける】 Despite the impressive ...


2

Question 1. Is it also possible, either historically or currently, to use the 〜ます form on the ある portion of the "historical adjective inflections" above? We can find plenty of examples for 高くありませんでした. Even if we limit our search to Google Books, to weed out other Q&A sites like this one. :) Likewise, searches for 高くありました and 高くありません find sensible ...


1

You are essentially correct. The phrase おやすみなさい(お休みなさい・御休みなさい if you are choosing to write with the characters)is a conjugation of the verb 休む (やすむ:rest, take a day off, lie down etc.), from which the noun 休み(やすみ)is also derived. So, the link is a direct one. To be specific, おやすみなさい is a (one of various!) polite imperative form of the verb 休む. The なさい and ...


1

Flexibility in Japanese written forms Written Japanese has two layers to it -- the words as pronounced, and the words as written. This double-layering allows authors to play around with nuance in ways that just aren't possible in other languages, like 月光【ムーンライト】 or 巾着【さいふ】 or 紅葉【はっぱのはなび】. 熄【や】み in specific Your example isn't quite as much of a stretch, ...


1

It's a thing in Mandarin world (Taiwan maybe?) to know several Japan region(Prefectures/cities) has unique emblem in its manhole cover(マンホールの蓋) design. As result, the term (人孔/人孔蓋) is a more used Kanji in Chinese instead of Japanese (人孔蓋 is a fairly common term in Mandarin news report that I remembered)


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My current understanding is as follows (thank you Yosh and broccoli forest for the insightful comments). デレる is an ichidan verb probably because it's actually an old verb coined in (or before) the 19th century, when the verb-coining rule was different from that of today. でれる did appear in several works in the 19th century. Although でれる was rare according to ...


1

Some preliminary research: 日本国語大辞典 has an example sentence dating from 1813: 「ばばちゃんいやいやと云ってだだをいふだ」. Dictionaries do make clear that it came from さん, but none of them list it as 幼児語 (baby talk). One reason this might be is that it has become a standardized way of addressing young children and female friends, so it is no longer considered 幼児語 as everyone uses ...


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