The following is my intuition. I think for most verbs, you can use dictionary or タ or テイル forms interchangeably without changing the meaning, even if there are some nuance difference. In particular, the sentences in the question mean mostly the same with any of those forms, as long as they are acceptable.
as far ...
I learned at school that we can infer the verb type from its ない form:
the sound right before ない has an あ(a) vowel ⇒ 五段(godan) verb
the sound right before ない has an い(i) vowel ⇒ 上一段(kami-ichidan) verb
the sound right before ない has an え(e) vowel ⇒ 下一段(shimo-ichidan) verb
For example, you can infer that...
聞く is 五段 verb from its ない form きかない (kika-nai)
見る is ...
No, it is not an independent adjective, but can be divided as 悲しき + かな, where 悲しき is a classical 連体形 (pre-noun form) and かな is a particle
Preceded by nouns or pre-noun form, indicates being impressed/exclamation. Translated as だなあ.
So a modern version would be 悲しいなあ, meaning oh, how sad...
移行する is not used in this sentence. It's the te-form of ～にする ("to make [something] ～") followed by the subsidiary verb 行く ("gradually", "over time") in its volitional form. A very literal translation would be "Let's (gradually) make (our society) such a society."
The た-form would be correct if the sentence ended there.
The compound verb 勉強してくる is used in its て-form to connect these two sentences into one, in one of the most basic functions of the て-form.
The sentence sounds a bit unnatural to me, though. I would probably use an adversative conjunction.