16

As Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy dreams he found himself transformed in his bed into a gigantic insect. One morning -> ある朝 Is this ある may be what am I looking for? I can confirm it is the one, as a native speaker. The kanji version is 或る, but more often it appears in ひらがな: ある人が…, ある時, あるところにおじいさんとおばあさんが, etc. We also ...


15

「ぶったてる」=「ぶっ建{た}てる」 = "to build" or rather "to f***ing build" if one were to translate the nuance intended. 「ぶっ」 is a manly and slangy verb prefix that emphasizes the meaning of the verb. The core meaning of the verb itself stays the same even if the prefix is added. https://kotobank.jp/word/%E6%89%93%E3%81%A3-618986#E5.A4.A7.E8.BE.9E.E6.9E.97.20.E7.AC.AC....


14

It's read as はつしょうぎょうし. You can never find it in dictionaries because it's actually three words: 初【はつ】: first (jisho.org) 商業誌【しょうぎょうし】: commercial book/magazine (often as opposed to dōjinshi) 商業【しょうぎょう】: commerce (jisho.org) 誌【し】: (suffix) magazine (jisho.org) 初商業誌 is typically used when a dōjin manga-ka makes a debut on a magazine available in the ...


11

This is the use of 「一{いち}」 as a prefix and yes, it is read 「いち」. It can be used with all types of nouns -- Yamato, Sino-loanwords and katakana words. When used with inanimate objects as in your examples, 「一」 means "a certain ~~", "a certain type/kind of ~~", etc. 「特定{とくてい}の」 would be too strong a word choice for the translation in most cases. It would ...


11

ひ弱 is usually straightforwardly negative and derogatory. The word sometimes has the implication of "sickly". か弱い often refers to a type of weakness that stirs someone's sympathetic feeling or protective instinct. か弱い is not necessarily negative, and you can even find articles that says か弱い女性はモテる, in which case the nuance is more or less close to that of ...


10

This question is interesting for me. We say 毎年(every year), 毎日(everyday), 毎回/毎度(each time), 各人/各自/各位(each person), 各国/国ごと(each country), 各地(each place), 各所/各部(each parts), etc... Also say 各年, 各回, 人ごと, 年毎, rarely say 各日, however DON'T say 毎人, 毎国, 毎地, 各度. I think those are decided by common practice and no rigorous rules. You had better look up those words ...


10

I think you're parsing it incorrectly... It's 未+完成, not 未完+成. [未]{み} - prefix, "not yet" "un-" [完成]{かんせい} - "completion" "accomplishment" "perfection"


9

In language, a process is said to be productive if it can produce new words (or phrases, etc.). For example, in English, you can add un- to lots of words, so we say that un- affixation is a productive process. And in Japanese, affixing go- and o- to words is relatively productive. But when a word can no longer be formed via a productive process in the ...


9

Yes. エセ = 似非 = pseudo; fake; quack; etc. (似非関西弁、似非医者、似非学問, etc.) インテリ = intellectual


8

It was a common practice during the Edo and Meiji periods and on through Taishou and early Shouwa periods. Women's names back then tended to be short (mostly two-syllable long and sometimes just one as OP's example) and surprisingly simple compared to their present-day counterparts. Baby girls were often named literally after simple plant, flower and ...


8

The best answer you might get with this is that it's "just a prefix." I cannot find any indications of the origins, but it is included in dictionaries and defined simply as a prefix that strengthens meaning: [接頭]主として形容詞に付いて、意味を強め、語調を整える。「―弱い」「―細い」「―黒い」 I can only find the one page with the theory that it comes from 小 so I don't know how much validity we ...


7

弱い or 細い sounds straightforward and a little intense to us Japanese. This prefix "か" soften the meaning and add some "kawaii". So か弱い or か細い is a euphemistic expression for something "kawaii". e.g. か弱い女の子 weak (and kawaii, or lovable, adorable) girl か細い声 weak (and kawaii, or lovable, adorable) voice


5

I'd say "yes" to your final question. You can definitely say something like ある朝 or ある朝のこと as a general way of saying "one morning".


5

An ordinary Japanese learner should probably memorize とぼける and ぼける as two totally different verbs. とぼける: to play dumb; to feign ignorance; to play innocent ぼける: to play stupid (as a joke); to develop dementia They seem to be etymologically related, but even native speakers do not regard this と as a prefix. Etymologically, according to this article and ...


4

I can't really tell you where か comes from, but I do think I can give a name to this sort of prefix. They're sometimes called 発語 (はつご or ほつご), and there are other examples of this category besides just か, including い, お, さ, そ, た, and み. Here's how 明鏡国語辞典 defines 発語{はつご}: 語調を整え、軽い意味を添える接頭語。「さ霧」「か細い」「そ知らぬ」の「さ」「か」「そ」など。 And here's how 精選版 日本国語大辞典 defines ...


4

You can translate inter- and intra- to ~間 and ~内 respectively. (Note that they become suffixes rather than prefixes in Japanese.) References: I read dainichi's comments above; I found this answer on ye olde Bag o' Wisdom; I looked for patterns in the inter- and intra- words in my Kenkyusha J-E dictionary; and I briefly checked Google to see if the ...


4

It's the passive of たたっこむ, which is an elided form of 叩き込む, which here figuratively means 'to throw someone in prison'. Thus a translation might be: That bastard Joe, could it be that he's going to end up getting thrown in prison?


4

お and ご, both represented by the kanji 御, are prefixes that increase the politeness of a word. They are often used when referring to other people to put them on a higher level than yourself, which is why you say 「お元気ですか」 to other people, but you say 「元気です」 about yourself. Whether you use お or ご is dependent on the word, so ご元気 is not correct. お usually goes ...


4

This is the prefix ぶっ (deriving from 打つ【ぶつ】) applied to the verb はたく (叩く) "to knock/hit". (For details, see your other question about ぶったてる.)


4

Your interpretation is correct, used as a prefix 数{すう}パーセント 数{すう}ケルビン, etc the pronunciation is すう and not かず and it means "a few", so in my examples "a few percent" or "a few Kelvin". The 程度{ていど} afterwards means "order of", so "on the order of a few percent" The full translation is thus: Meanwhile, the contribution of the main natural causes such as ...


4

Having lived in Japan all my life, I have never seen or heard the word 「駄女」, so I could at least assure you that it would not be a common word at all even if you have actually seen/heard it used. (I highly doubt that you have encountered the word in real life.) Can I use this 駄 with other words? For example, like 駄先輩 or 駄宏 (with the name of a man)? ...


3

The other answers give good insight into Japanese, but in the particular example of Kafka's Metamorphosis I can also confirm that ある朝 is the preferred translation of "one morning": ある朝、グレゴール・ザムザが気がかりな夢から目ざめたとき、自分がベッドの上で一匹の巨大な毒虫に変ってしまっているのに気づいた。 One morning, as Gregor Samsa was waking up from anxious dreams, he discovered that in bed he had been ...


3

The Ministry of Education's guidance is (or used to be) that honorific prefixes should only be used where their usage was well-established by custom, and that as a rule お should be used before Japanese words and ご(御) before "kango" (Chinese or Chinese-style words). Thus, おさけ and おはし(お箸) but ご主人 and ご本人. Honorific prefixes shouldn't be used before 外来語 (non-...


3

Your observation is mostly correct, as 休 suggests "off from usual activity" thus expect returning at some point. 閉 means two things: "closed" as opposed to "open", and "close down (completely)". For stores and libraries that have regular business hours, 閉X could mean either "end of a day; outside hours" or "close down to cease to exist", but I believe ...


3

駄 in established words such as 駄馬, 駄文 and 駄菓子 clearly means "bad" or "cheap", but it's basically not a productive prefix, and you should not attach it to an arbitrary word. In particular, you can never attach it to a proper noun like 宏 (although something like ダメ宏 is occasionally heard). That said, 駄 is occasionally used by native speakers as a slangy/...


2

"to apply eye drops" = 「[目薬]{めぐすり}を[差]{さ}す」 Thus, 「さし」 in 「さし[心地]{ごこち}」 is the [連用形]{れんようけい} (continuative form) of the verb 「差す」. (Note that 心地, all by itself, is read ここち, but with a 連用形 in front, it is read ごこち.) 「Verb in [連用形]{れんようけい} (continuative form) + [心地]{ごこち}」 = "degree or level of pleasantness/comfortableness in performing the action ...


2

I think 心地 means nearly "feeling" and ~心地 means "the feeling of doing something" For example, 着心地(the feeling of wearing it), 触り心地(the feeling of touching it), 履き心地(the feeling which you get on it). To put eyedrops in one's eye is translated as 目薬をさす in Japanese, so さし心地 means "the feeling of putting eyedrops in your eye".


2

大辞泉 has an entry for 本 as "general purpose prefix": [接頭]名詞に付く。 1 今、現に問題にしているもの、当面のものであることを表す。この。「―議案」「―大会」 2 それがいま話している自分にかかわるものであることを表す。「―大臣としては」 3 きょうの。本日の。「―未明」 That is, 本 means either (1) "now/current", (2) something related to oneself, (3) something related to today.


2

Use o お in begin of these questions phrases A: お名前は? B: ペドロです A: お国は? B: スペインです From what I know, the お work as a honorific of respect, then, it is used only in formal phrase. But, this phrases do not seem to be formal. These お are meant to be put on the nouns, 名前 and 国, and is nothing to do whether it's interrogative....


2

Your question is too general and broad. There are rules of thumb but usually no written rules. For 「【無・不・非・未】〜」 or 「〜ない」, 無 usually means ない(not exists), 不 usually means "not", 非 usually means "other than", and 未 usually means "not yet/completed" For 【関係ない・なし】【宗教的な意識】vs. 【宗教的意識】, without 送り仮名, usually it tends to sound like a term, and with 仮名 you can add ...


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