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47

In your example, 日本人の知らない is a relative clause, equivalent in meaning to 日本人が知らない. This clause as a whole modifies 日本語, so it means the Japanese that Japanese people don't know. In relative clauses, the subject particle が can be replaced with の: ジョンが買った本 ジョンの買った本 The book John bought This is true in double-subject constructions as well: ...


22

I fell on my ass. 「尻餅{しりもち}をついた」 「私、しりもちついちゃった。」


20

You can simply use の: 今日は「評論」の「評」の漢字を覚えました。 ブラボーのB、デルタのD 「服を着る」の「着る」じゃなくて、「髪の毛を切る」方の「切る」です。


18

It's just standard GA-NO conversion. [日本人が知らない]日本語 'Japanese that [Japanese don't know]'


18

今日という日 (literally "the day called today") is just an emphatic version of "today", or "this very day". This expression is commonly used in formal greetings and poems. (I tried jisho.org but got nothing related to "everyday". How did you come up with "everyday"?)


17

Perhaps you're looking for 幸せ太り (pronounced as しあわせぶとり due to rendaku). This word is not particularly positive nor negative/derogatory. Gaining weight itself is not a desirable thing, but some people may see it as an enviable evidence of happiness.


14

It means "I'm not good with alcohol" or "I don't like alcohol". Of course it can also mean "Alcohol is not good (for your health)" and "Alcohol is prohibited (in this event)", depending on the context. In general, ~がダメだ can mean "to be not good at ~" or "not to like ~". For example you can say サッカーはダメです, 彼は英語がダメです, etc.


13

"Bob says hi by the way." 「ところで、ボブがよろしくって。」 「そうだ、ボブがよろしくって。」 or 「ところで、ボブがハローって。」 or something similar. The above sentences are a casual way of saying the first sentence below: ところで、ボブが「よろしく」と言っていましたよ ところで、ボブが「よろしく」って言っていたよ ところで、ボブが「よろしく」って


13

失礼{しつれい}しなければならない 失礼 (shitsurei) is "rudeness". 失礼する (shitsurei suru) is "to be rude" 失礼しない (shitsurei shinai) is the negation "to not be rude". 失礼しなければ (shitsurei shinakereba) is a conditional form of the above "If I am not rude" 失礼しなければならない (shitsurei shinakereba naranai) I'm now sure how to break down ならない meaningfully but in this context it kind of ...


13

① Grammar pattern The grammar pattern used here is: V(ない form, and drop the い) + なければならない which means "must V", where V is any verb in the plain negative form (ending in ない) . First drop the い and then add なけらばならない 食【た】べない → 食【た】べな →食【た】べなけらばならない。"Must eat". 行【い】かない → 行【い】かな → 行【い】かなければならない。"Must go". 散歩【さんぽ】しない→ 散歩【さんぽ】しな → 散歩【さんぽ】...


12

This one can be beautifully summarized by a simple quote from wiktionary: 語源[編集] どう、いたし・まし・て<「どう(どのように、何を)」+「いたす(「する」の謙譲語)」+「ます(丁寧語を造る助動詞)」+「て(反問的用法の終助詞)」)。 「何を、したというわけでもありませんよ(だから、気になさらないでください)」の意 It's fairly self explanatory, but to give a breakdown in english: どう = どのように いたす = する in humble language ます is the polite verb ending, but in te form.. ...


12

There is no word for 'it'. Japanese is a very contextual language and the 'it' will be inferred from context. To take some of your examples, if you are walking down the street and you say "it's cold" your friend will know what you mean without talking about weather. The 'it' adds absolutely no new/useful information. Similarly, if you say 寒{さむ}いですね your ...


12

I think a simple one is 一日一歩{いちにちいっぽ} which in romaji is ichinichi ippo. This literally means "one day one step" and it bears the meaning of "one day at the time" in English. There is as well another way to express a similar meaning with 一日一日{いちにちいちにち}を着実{ちゃくじつ}に. In romaji ichinichi ichinichi wo chakujitsu ni. This is a bit hard to translate literally as ...


11

You are using what could be interpreted as two different verbs: まける -> to lose しっぱいする -> to fail Formally, I usually hear "I cannot afford to fail" rather than "I don't want to fail". 失敗する余裕はありません。 If you want to sound cool, you could say "I don't have any intention on losing". 負けるつもりはありません。


11

まだ固いつぼみを見つけ出して、これにあたたかい春の風を送り、花に育てる The direct object of 育てる is left out. It's これ, i.e. まだ固いつぼみ, "firm buds". It's 「(これ(=まだ固いつぼみ)を)花に育てる」, "bring up (firm buds) into flowers". そこへゆくと、[まだ固いつぼみを見つけ出して、これにあたたかい春の風を送り、花に育てる]編集のしごとはそれ自体が一つの芸術である。 Means something along the lines of... In contrast, the work of editing [where you find firm buds, tend them ...


10

背中を押す means "encourage someone to do something." It's a figurative expression meaning "to motivate someone to go ahead by pushing his / her back." For example: アメリカに留学しようかどうか迷っていたが、その時母親が背中を押してくれた I was hesitating to study in the United States, but my mom encouraged me to do so at that time. 我々は新製品を[市場化]{しじょうか}できるかどうか決めかねていたが、部長が背中を押してくれた We ...


10

舐(な)める has a broad meaning such as (1) to lick (a stamp), (2) taste (Popsicle / whisky), (3) experience (hardships) and (4) look down on / make light of (a person). 舐めた is an adjective form of ”舐(な)める” in (4) look down / take a derogatory attitude. “口をきく” means to talk / speak. “舐め口” is a shortened form of “舐めた口.” Therefore “舐め口をきく” means to speak in the ...


10

Ari あり: The masu-stem of ある ("to exist", "to be"). The masu-stem of a verb sometimes works as a noun. So here あり means "(your) being", "current existence", etc. No の: The particle that connects two nouns. You must be familiar with this. Mama まま: A noun that means "the status like before", "the same manner", etc. It's almost always modified by another clause ...


10

I guess he is asking me about my well being. In fact, I don't think so. 幸せ usually doesn't mean normal well-being but only the full-of-joy state, that like whoever has their child. It's not a word you use to ask if somebody is fine. In this case, unless it's typo or mojibake, the final ? represents some degree of unsureness or hesitation towards previous ...


9

阿月地区を東西二つに分けて means "separate the Azuki district into two parts, east and west". You could insert a の, making it 東西の二つ, but the adverbial use without it is not uncommon for these "listing"-jukugo like 東西, 優劣, 大小 etc.


9

そこ literally means "there" so you can't just add ください to it. For "move", I think you would say: どいて。(informal) どいてください。(polite form of どいて, but still sounds informal) (ちょっと、)そこ、あけて。 (Lit. Make room there.) etc. To sound polite I think you could say: ちょっとあけてください。 ちょっとあけてくれませんか。 ちょっとあけてもらえますか。 ちょっとあけてもらえませんか。 ちょっとすみません。 etc...


9

(すみません、)[写真]{しゃしん}お[願]{ねが}いします。 would probably be understood as "Please take my/our picture", but it can also be understood as "May I take a photo of you?". To avoid confusion, you could say: (すみません、)シャッターお[願]{ねが}いします。  (すみません、)シャッター[押]{お}してください。 You can also say: (すみません、)[写真]{しゃしん}[撮]{と}ってください。 (すみません、)[写真]{しゃしん}[撮]{と}ってくれませんか。 (すみません、)[写真]{...


9

"と申します" (to moushimasu) is a more formal way to say "と言う" (to iu), which both mean "to say". As you say "name + to moushimasu" is one way to introduce yourself. Keep in mind while this can translate to the English phrase "I'm called ~", it doesn't literally mean that. "と呼ばれる" (to yobareru) would be a closer literal match for that, though not commonly used ...


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