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15

Terminology First of all some remarks on the terminology used. Adverb (副詞) is the usual definition as it can be found in dictionaries. The other two words require some more thought. It seems 時相名詞 is a technical term used by jumandic, a dictionary for morphological parsers. Here's the only insight I could find: EDRは時詞という名前で、JUMANは時相名詞という名前で、...


14

仲間: People who share the same goal and work/struggle/fight together in a group or organization. They often can be your close friends, too, but that's not necessary. A person whom you personally dislike, or whom you don't even know, can sometimes be your 仲間. In One Piece it sounds dramatic because it's about people who share the same destiny, literally in the ...


12

As a rule, a verb's 連用形 (conjunctive/continuative form) can become a noun (名詞化). I think that technically it doesn't matter what word it is. All can take that form and become nouns. In regular use, though, I think you'll find that words that are used this way are relatively limited. So we have common words like 始まり、綴り、しゃべり、 etc. It may be useful to think of ...


12

[両岸]{りょうがん} refers to the two countries of China and Taiwan. It comes from the fact that they are on both sides (両岸) of the Taiwan Strait. So basically the same meaning as 中台. For example, the Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement between mainland China and Taiwan is 両岸経済協力枠組協議 in Japanese. So, 両岸の関係は過去66年間で最も平和的な状態にある. China/Taiwan relations are ...


10

This is the use of 「一{いち}」 as a prefix and yes, it is read 「いち」. It can be used with all types of nouns -- Yamato, Sino-loanwords and katakana words. When used with inanimate objects as in your examples, 「一」 means "a certain ~~", "a certain type/kind of ~~", etc. 「特定{とくてい}の」 would be too strong a word choice for the translation in most cases. It would ...


9

教師 means "a teacher". 先生 means "a teacher", too. But 先生 can be used for the title of teacher, doctor, writer, politician, artist, and so on. For example, when a student greets to the teacher in the morning, he can't say "おはようございます、教師。". In this situation, he should say "おはようございます、先生".


9

From Japanese (and perhaps some Chinese) There is no borrowing here, as the opening part explicitly shows Japanese sakura. The etymology is, as most often assumed, さくらんぼ < 桜{さくら}の坊{ボウ} , where 坊 ‘monk’ could refer to the cherries being as smooth as a monk’s shaven head. The word is still spelt 桜ん坊 in Kanji, so there is nothing really surprising here ...


9

They are very similar, but I feel the threshold between よい調子 and 悪い調子 is higher than that between よい具合 and 悪い具合. 彼は調子が良い: He is at his best 彼は調子が悪い: He is not in his best condition, if not ill 彼は具合が悪い: He is sick 機械の調子が悪い: The machine is working, but something is wrong 機械の具合が悪い: The machine may be broken 調子はどう?: How's it going? / How are you? 具合はどう?: How is ...


8

First of all, it's worth noting that Japanese has no 形容詞 or 形容動詞(な-adjective) which directly corresponds to the English adjective sick. (although you can say 「彼の具合【ぐあい】が悪【わる】い 」, if you don't mind replacing the subject) We can say 「彼 は [病名] だ」、「[病名] の 人」、「 [病名] に なる」、where [病名] can be 癌 (cancer), 肺炎 (pneumonia), 糖尿病 (diabetes), 骨粗鬆症 (osteoporosis), or 病気 (...


8

Shogakukan's 大国語辞典 shows that 姪【めい】 has a historical hiragana spelling of めひ, not めい, showing that the modern mei reading is not on'yomi but rather kun'yomi. This different derivation is probably also why the pronunciation is different: [mei] with a more distinct [i], and not [meː]. The term for "nephew", 甥【おい】, has a historical hiragana spelling of をひ. ...


8

First off, I think you got the actors the wrong way round. A また太っちゃった。 I ended up getting fat again. B あまいものばかり食べているからだよ。 That's because you eat nothing but sweets. Can you remove からだ? Grammatically you can, but it wouldn't sound natural in the same way that this English exchange would sound slightly awkward: A) I ended up getting fat again. B)...


7

I'm afraid I don't have any authoritative reference, but have you checked the Wikipedia article 婦人? 大正デモクラシーの時期、婦人という語は、普通選挙権要求運動とも連動し、斬新な響きを持った。「婦人公論」に代表されるように、「意識の高い成人女性」との響きさえあった。 婦人という語感が、「年輩女性」「既婚女性」との意味合いを持つようになり、次第に使われなくなった。 現代の日本語においてより一般化した呼称が「女性」である。「婦人」の語はやや古めかしいイメージを持つ古語になりつつある。 So 婦人 was a stylish word back in the early 20th century, but now ...


7

進歩 is advancement to a higher/better/improved stage. Mainly used with scientific/technical ideas. 科学の進歩, コンピュータの進歩, 進歩したエンジン. 進行 is: progress to a advanced (often worse) stage: 癌の進行, 環境破壊が進行した progress of a plan, procedure, task, etc: 予定の進行, 結婚式の進行, 研究の進行状況 running/moving of a train, car, etc: 列車の進行, 進行方向の安全確認


7

先生 can be used as a profession or as a title, and you can call a lawyer or a doctor with sensei. But 教師 is the teacher profession.


7

In this case past tense 見た人 is correct and it's irrelevant if it's a person or an inanimate object. But there are more points to be careful about in your sentence: no need to use に after the 昨日 いる is a state verb, so it should be ここにいる (instead of ここで) also no need for に after 今日, in fact you would want to stress the fact it happens again, so も fits here ...


7

会社【かいしゃ】 kaisha is an independent word meaning "company" or "corporation". In compounds it describes a type of company (and is always pronounced がいしゃ gaisha) 航空会社【くうこうがいしゃ】 kūkō gaisha airline company 証券会社【しょうけんがいしゃ】 shōken gaisha brokerage firm 株式会社【かぶしきがいしゃ】 kabushiki gaisha stock company 社 may be used independently as an abbreviation of 会社, ...


7

顔【かお】 is the primary word for face (of animal/human). You should be using this word in most situations. 面 read as つら is an uncommon slangy/rough word that is mainly used in dirty conversations and derogatory idioms such as どの面下げて, 面の顔が厚い. Although some fixed phrases like しかめっ面 and 泣きっ面に蜂 are safe in ordinary conversations, you should not use 面 as a generic ...


7

A corpus is a good tool to answer this type of question yourself. 舅姑: 30 Hits (Many instances are from the same author born before 1960's) 義父母: 50 Hits (Many are from blog articles and chiebukuro questions) 義母: 758 Hits 義父: 536 Hits 義理の親: 7 Hits 義理の母: 30 Hits 義理の父: 33 Hits 義親: 20 Hits IMHO, 舅姑 sounds old, and it may have an unwanted connotation (the ...


7

The original meaning of 「雑草{ざっそう}」 is, of course, "weed". When used to describe a person, however, it refers to a non-star or non-elite type whose name no one knew at the beginning. The term is most often, if not exclusively, used to refer to athletes of mediocre ability. Those types, however, occasionally end up very successful for their "weed-like" ...


7

It seems like 雨 or 雪 are viewed as weather phenomena, which are more black-and-white (either it rains/snows or it doesn't) whereas wind lies on a continuous spectrum. So to say "windy weather" (which in English also should be understood as "stronger than usual wind") in Japanese it seems more common to say 風が強い, meaning that often during the day the wind ...


7

In osara, the o is indeed honorific and it is commonly written in kana as お, but sometimes also as 御. As you are likely aware, there is often some flexibility in choosing between kanji, hiragana and katakana to write any given text. As for osara, it would usually be written as お皿, because the honorific o is usually written お and because sara is usually ...


7

How about 「接尾語になる名詞」 or 「複合語の後ろの要素になる名詞」, perhaps? 「教える[甲斐]{かい}」「教え[甲斐]{がい}」 「困ること」「困りごと」 「サボる[癖]{くせ}」「サボり[癖]{ぐせ}」 「置く場所」「置き場所」 「行く場」「行き場」 「送る先」「送り先」 「帰る道」「帰り道」 「食べる[時]{とき}」「食べ[時]{どき}」 「食べる物」「食べ物」 「座る順」「座り順」(← probably colloquial. maybe only used in Kansai?) 「死ぬ[様]{さま}」「死に[様]{ざま}」 etc... ??


6

「[自分]{じぶん}は[死]{し}ぬ[前]{まえ}に[一目思]{ひとめおもう}う[女]{おんな}に[逢]{あ}いたいと[云]{い}った。」 The part that you are misreading is 「一目思う女に逢いたい」, which can be rephrased as 「思う女に一目逢いたい」. 「一目」 modifies「逢いたい」, and not 「思う」. In fact, it is impossible to "一目思う a person" in the first place; It just makes no sense. 「一目会いたい/逢いたい」 is a common set phrase meaning "to want to see someone ...


6

ホームシック is understood as describing the state of being homesick. You can parallel it with 病気 (as in ホームシックになる vs. 病気になる, ホームシックの時 vs. 病気の時), but being perceived as a noun doesn't imply that it is describing a disease. メタボ (derived from メタボリックシンドローム{metabolic syndrome}) appears to be used both as noun and as na-adjective, e.g. メタボの人 vs. メタボな人. Moreover, I ...


6

A native speaker here. Between the two ways you parsed the line, the second one is much better though still not perfect. The first period placed after the にじむ in your second attempt is unnecessary. Nearly all native speaers would consider 色あせる or 色あせた as one word, therefore; we would not even think that a が or の is being omitted. All of 色あせた、青ににじむ and 白い ...


6

Searching for キヤノン 由来 one quickly finds the relevant official page for the origin of the name Canon. It seems that the company name itself was derived from the English word "canon": Canonの語源には、「正典」「規範」「標準」という意味があります。 It was also a welcome coincidence that the pronunciation of キヤノン was close to 観音=カンノン (Kannon, Kwannon, Avalokiteśvara): また「キヤノン」の発音が「...


6

Another thing to add is that since 先生 is an honorific term, it is quite impolite to refer to yourself as 先生 even if you are a teacher. I was instructed by a native teacher to introduce/refer to my parents (who are university professors) as 教師. It is also more clarifying, as Japanese people refer to many occupations with 先生: doctors, writers, lawyers...


6

Some kanji suffixes can be used for this. Probably the most generic and closest to -er is -者{しゃ}: 医{い}者{しゃ} (doctor, physician) 歯{は}医{い}者{しゃ} (dentist) 忍{にん}者{じゃ} (ninja) 責任者{せきにんしゃ} (person responsible/in charge) 関係者{かんけいしゃ} (authorized person, staff) 科学者{かがくしゃ} (scientist) 通訳者{つうやくしゃ} (interpreter) More such words (Wiktionary link) NB: in ...


6

母 is a very common term for mother. 妣 is rarely used nowadays and usually understood as "late mother", but it may be used as a variant of 母. 母に万葉で「妣」の字を宛てたのは、歿後の父母なる事を示したと言ふ事も出来ようが、唯母と通用したものだらう。そして、唯色々な形の歌を組み入れたゞけと見る方がよい。 (折口信夫 相聞の発達)


6

Many Japanese verbs have transitive and intransitive versions. Basically, 終わる (owaru) is an intransitive verb. 終える (oeru) is the transitive equivalent. So here are the most basic usages: 仕事が終わります。 Shigoto ga owarimasu. (intransitive) The task finishes. 仕事を終えます。 Shigoto o oemasu. (transitive) I finish the task. In plain and active sentences ...


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