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24

snailplane's link says, it comes from 皮肉骨髄 "skin meat bones marrow" attributed to the Bodhidharma of Chinese Zen Buddhism. Bones and marrow came to take on the meaning of essential, skin and meat became synonymous with superficial. From there, 皮肉 was also used as a word for criticizing faults/defects (which stems from not recognizing the true nature of sth.),...


18

皮{ひ}肉{にく} literally means "skin and flesh" and comes from the idiom 皮{ひ}肉{にく}骨{こつ}髄{ずい} ("skin, flesh, bones, and marrow"). This word comes from Chán Buddhism in ancient China, and refers to a legend about how the dharma passed from Bodhidharma to Huìkě. As the story goes, Bodhidharma wanted to return to India, so he had to choose a successor. To do this, ...


15

Terminology First of all some remarks on the terminology used. Adverb (副詞) is the usual definition as it can be found in dictionaries. The other two words require some more thought. It seems 時相名詞 is a technical term used by jumandic, a dictionary for morphological parsers. Here's the only insight I could find: EDRは時詞という名前で、JUMANは時相名詞という名前で、...


14

仲間: People who share the same goal and work/struggle/fight together in a group or organization. They often can be your close friends, too, but that's not necessary. A person whom you personally dislike, or whom you don't even know, can sometimes be your 仲間. In One Piece it sounds dramatic because it's about people who share the same destiny, literally in the ...


13

[両岸]{りょうがん} refers to the two countries of China and Taiwan. It comes from the fact that they are on both sides (両岸) of the Taiwan Strait. So basically the same meaning as 中台. For example, the Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement between mainland China and Taiwan is 両岸経済協力枠組協議 in Japanese. So, 両岸の関係は過去66年間で最も平和的な状態にある. China/Taiwan relations are ...


12

As a rule, a verb's 連用形 (conjunctive/continuative form) can become a noun (名詞化). I think that technically it doesn't matter what word it is. All can take that form and become nouns. In regular use, though, I think you'll find that words that are used this way are relatively limited. So we have common words like 始まり、綴り、しゃべり、 etc. It may be useful to think of ...


9

First of all, it's worth noting that Japanese has no 形容詞 or 形容動詞(な-adjective) which directly corresponds to the English adjective sick. (although you can say 「彼の具合【ぐあい】が悪【わる】い 」, if you don't mind replacing the subject) We can say 「彼 は [病名] だ」、「[病名] の 人」、「 [病名] に なる」、where [病名] can be 癌 (cancer), 肺炎 (pneumonia), 糖尿病 (diabetes), 骨粗鬆症 (osteoporosis), or 病気 (...


9

Shogakukan's 大国語辞典 shows that 姪【めい】 has a historical hiragana spelling of めひ, not めい, showing that the modern mei reading is not on'yomi but rather kun'yomi. This different derivation is probably also why the pronunciation is different: [mei] with a more distinct [i], and not [meː]. The term for "nephew", 甥【おい】, has a historical hiragana spelling of をひ. ...


9

From Japanese (and perhaps some Chinese) There is no borrowing here, as the opening part explicitly shows Japanese sakura. The etymology is, as most often assumed, さくらんぼ < 桜{さくら}の坊{ボウ} , where 坊 ‘monk’ could refer to the cherries being as smooth as a monk’s shaven head. The word is still spelt 桜ん坊 in Kanji, so there is nothing really surprising here ...


9

First off, I think you got the actors the wrong way round. A また太っちゃった。 I ended up getting fat again. B あまいものばかり食べているからだよ。 That's because you eat nothing but sweets. Can you remove からだ? Grammatically you can, but it wouldn't sound natural in the same way that this English exchange would sound slightly awkward: A) I ended up getting fat again. B)...


8

I'm afraid I don't have any authoritative reference, but have you checked the Wikipedia article 婦人? 大正デモクラシーの時期、婦人という語は、普通選挙権要求運動とも連動し、斬新な響きを持った。「婦人公論」に代表されるように、「意識の高い成人女性」との響きさえあった。 婦人という語感が、「年輩女性」「既婚女性」との意味合いを持つようになり、次第に使われなくなった。 現代の日本語においてより一般化した呼称が「女性」である。「婦人」の語はやや古めかしいイメージを持つ古語になりつつある。 So 婦人 was a stylish word back in the early 20th century, but now ...


8

教師 means "a teacher". 先生 means "a teacher", too. But 先生 can be used for the title of teacher, doctor, writer, politician, artist, and so on. For example, when a student greets to the teacher in the morning, he can't say "おはようございます、教師。". In this situation, he should say "おはようございます、先生".


8

顔【かお】 is the primary word for face (of animal/human). You should be using this word in most situations. 面 read as つら is an uncommon slangy/rough word that is mainly used in dirty conversations and derogatory idioms such as どの面下げて, 面の顔が厚い. Although some fixed phrases like しかめっ面 and 泣きっ面に蜂 are safe in ordinary conversations, you should not use 面 as a generic ...


7

Without additional context, this sounds like a newspaper headline or something similar. In which case, the へ would act as "to" or "toward", implying the direction the Telefonica company will take in their business. Something like "Telefonica to head toward product investment next year" Again, if it's a headline or something, the verb is omitted yet ...


7

ホームシック is understood as describing the state of being homesick. You can parallel it with 病気 (as in ホームシックになる vs. 病気になる, ホームシックの時 vs. 病気の時), but being perceived as a noun doesn't imply that it is describing a disease. メタボ (derived from メタボリックシンドローム{metabolic syndrome}) appears to be used both as noun and as na-adjective, e.g. メタボの人 vs. メタボな人. Moreover, I ...


7

進歩 is advancement to a higher/better/improved stage. Mainly used with scientific/technical ideas. 科学の進歩, コンピュータの進歩, 進歩したエンジン. 進行 is: progress to a advanced (often worse) stage: 癌の進行, 環境破壊が進行した progress of a plan, procedure, task, etc: 予定の進行, 結婚式の進行, 研究の進行状況 running/moving of a train, car, etc: 列車の進行, 進行方向の安全確認


7

先生 can be used as a profession or as a title, and you can call a lawyer or a doctor with sensei. But 教師 is the teacher profession.


7

In this case past tense 見た人 is correct and it's irrelevant if it's a person or an inanimate object. But there are more points to be careful about in your sentence: no need to use に after the 昨日 いる is a state verb, so it should be ここにいる (instead of ここで) also no need for に after 今日, in fact you would want to stress the fact it happens again, so も fits here ...


7

会社【かいしゃ】 kaisha is an independent word meaning "company" or "corporation". In compounds it describes a type of company (and is always pronounced がいしゃ gaisha) 航空会社【くうこうがいしゃ】 kūkō gaisha airline company 証券会社【しょうけんがいしゃ】 shōken gaisha brokerage firm 株式会社【かぶしきがいしゃ】 kabushiki gaisha stock company 社 may be used independently as an abbreviation of 会社, ...


7

Many Japanese verbs have transitive and intransitive versions. Basically, 終わる (owaru) is an intransitive verb. 終える (oeru) is the transitive equivalent. So here are the most basic usages: 仕事が終わります。 Shigoto ga owarimasu. (intransitive) The task finishes. 仕事を終えます。 Shigoto o oemasu. (transitive) I finish the task. In plain and active sentences ...


7

A corpus is a good tool to answer this type of question yourself. 舅姑: 30 Hits (Many instances are from the same author born before 1960's) 義父母: 50 Hits (Many are from blog articles and chiebukuro questions) 義母: 758 Hits 義父: 536 Hits 義理の親: 7 Hits 義理の母: 30 Hits 義理の父: 33 Hits 義親: 20 Hits IMHO, 舅姑 sounds old, and it may have an unwanted connotation (the ...


7

They are very similar, but I feel the threshold between よい調子 and 悪い調子 is higher than that between よい具合 and 悪い具合. 彼は調子が良い: He is at his best 彼は調子が悪い: He is not in his best condition, if not ill 彼は具合が悪い: He is sick 機械の調子が悪い: The machine is working, but something is wrong 機械の具合が悪い: The machine may be broken 調子はどう?: How's it going? / How are you? 具合はどう?: How is ...


7

It seems like 雨 or 雪 are viewed as weather phenomena, which are more black-and-white (either it rains/snows or it doesn't) whereas wind lies on a continuous spectrum. So to say "windy weather" (which in English also should be understood as "stronger than usual wind") in Japanese it seems more common to say 風が強い, meaning that often during the day the wind ...


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