21

There's even an exceptional word which mixes hiragana, katakana, and kanji, くノ一. Generally speaking, words are written with mixed writing systems when there are reasons to write different parts in different ways. (Sounds obvious, huh?) For example, in Tokyo Nagoya's example of あんパン, the first morpheme comes from Chinese 餡{あん}, and the second from ...


19

According to Wikipedia, the correct name of “山手線” is “やまのてせん.” In the application form of business license submitted by The National Railway (then 日本国有鉄道) to the government before the start of operation in early Meiji era, it was indicated as “山ノ手線,” and remained so until / during the World War II. However, the National Railway (then 国鉄) started to use the ...


17

I'm fairly certain that this has to do with pitch in Japanese and accentuation in English. The natural pitch for デバグ【HLL】 is HLL, whereas デバッグ【LHLL】 would naturally be LHL (and バグ【HL】 is HL). To mimic accentuation by pitch (i.e. accented syllables get a high pitch after transliteration), the ッ is necessary to give the バ a (natural) high pitch. バグ already ...


12

If we want an authoritative source, we could look at the official terminology used by the Japanese government as set out by the Agency of Cultural Affairs (文化庁) (might be familiar name to some people as their page about 二重敬語 gets referenced here sometimes). They start by saying only to use kanji from 常用漢字表・付表 in the normal form of the character. They go on ...


12

Japanese 国語審議会 (National Language Council) recommends longer (with ー) forms since 1991. So foreign words in textbooks for elementary school students usually have trailing "ー". http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/hakusho/nc/k19910628002/k19910628002.html 注3 英語の語末の‐er, ‐or, ‐arなどに当たるものは,原則としてア列の長音とし長音符号「ー」を用いて書き表す。ただし,慣用に応じて「ー」を省くことができる。 〔例〕 エレベーター ギター ...


12

Both マルクス and マーカス are common transcriptions of the name Markus or Marcus. Roughly speaking you can think of マルクス as a more German/Scandinavian-sounding transcription and マーカス as a more English-sounding transcription. The English pronunciation of Marcus is [[ˈmɑːrkəs]]. The English //r// can be silent (e.g. [[ˈmɑːkəs]]) and often is transcribed as a ...


11

Etymology. おお comes from an earlier おほ or おを, while おう can come from any of おう、あう、おふ、or あふ (and potentially えう、えふ、ゑう、ゑふ if it's now よう). This is due to sound change - originally all of these were distinct pronunciations, but they have since been reduced to a single sound ([o:]). Typically you can guess that [o:] in Chinese loanwords will be spelled with おう (...


11

Systems of romanisation which were originally intended to render Japanese in a way that makes it easier for foreigners to pronounce, like Hepburn, will use "shi" and "chi" because those are closer to the correct pronunciation. Other systems, like Kunreisiki, will use "si" and "ti" instead. Which is used where is partly down to what the purpose is - Hepburn ...


11

Your choice of Romanization will depend on your target audience. In my opinion, your absolute safest bet is to go with strict Hepburn style. If it's for Japanese people, feel free to use kunrei. This is what Japanese people learn when they are kids, and many write their names that way. They learn Hepburn in English classes in junior high school. If it's ...


11

This is a double consonant sound. It's denoted by the smaller size つ. So instead of the word being pronounced as Mo-tsu-to, it is pronounced Mot-to because of the っ. That is why you have two t's instead of just Mo-to. This is similar to かった in which the actual pronunciation is kat-ta instead of ka-tsu-ta. Another consonant sound is added before っ that is ...


11

Really, all I can say is 'it depends on the word'. Generally on'yomi (Chinese-derived) readings use おう, while kun'yomi (native Japanese) readings use おお, but there may be exceptions. A note: if う is a verb ending, おう will not be pronounced おお but as お and う separately, as in 追う and 思う. A lot of what I've said also applies to えい and ええ.


10

After reading the first couple of examples in the comments I Googled them and discovered the English Wiktionary actually has an appendix of exactly these terms: Appendix:Japanese words written in mixed kana But they must be quite rare or the appendix very incomplete, because it currently only includes three words (plus one Proper noun): サボる (saboru,...


10

Almost nobody cares if you write them in hiragana or kanji. Theoretically, the kanji 私 is only associated with わたくし, whose original meaning is "personal, private". But insisting so in this age only sounds very much like the "spelling police", because the most prevalent usage of わたくし is, after all, as first-person pronoun like its shortened form わたし. Plus, ...


10

Both are different spellings of ありがとう, neither is more formal, although all three spellings may be differentiated by frequency (see below). ありがとう "thank you" may be derived from ありがたい through sound change; ありがたい is a compound of 有る and 難い. In forming compounds, the first verb conjugates to the ren'yōkei (= "masu-stem"). In compound verbs, like 有り得る or ...


10

おにょみ does not make sense except as deliberate 変換ミス (e.g. for comical effect). Handling such mistypes is a common IME feature for words with ん+ vowel combinations or ん+な行. As shown in the screenshot, another common example is おんあ(onna)→女.


9

おてもと does refer to chopsticks but it is not "another word for chopsticks." That is, you won't say おてもとを取ってください nor 新しいおてもとを買ってこようかな. According to the source article that Chocolate's Wikipedia article mentions, the word came from a reference to "お手もと箸" (chopsticks for your personal use) in contrast to "お取り箸", which refers to chopsticks for shared dishes that ...


9

As with almost anything, there are people who care and others who don't! But it is definitely a thing to consider if you are trying to write well. Degrees of severity There are two angles to this. One is “trivial“, in that the consideration is mostly about legibility, flow, and aesthetics. The other is more consequential, where the “false compound” could ...


9

There you go. (Body must be at least 30 characters.)


9

If you look at the real scale image of 我艦隊於黄海清艦撃沈之圖, you can see a few small okurigana attached to kanji. Although it does not conform today's standard orthography, it makes the name unambiguously read as 我【わ】が艦隊【かんたい】黄海【こうかい】に於【おい】て清艦【しんかん】を撃【う】ち沈【しず】(め/む)る之【の】圖【ず】, which basically agrees with that romaji (except it's shinkan, which seems to be a typo). 於 ...


8

Shogakukan does list the 難有 combination with a reading of ありがた in one place, in the title of a kabuki play: 難有御江戸景清. Poking around online suggests that this is read as ありがたやめぐみのかげきよ. The reversed kanji order would match Chinese syntax better than Japanese, making me wonder if this is simply a kanbun style of spelling. EDIT: Googling a bit more brought up ...


8

When talking about shi (and absence of si), to say "there is no si but shi in Japanese" is not really correct. The truth would rather be "there is no distinction between si and shi in Japanese". In other words, there is only one such "voiceless sibilant" phoneme in Japanese, which is usually written as /s/, and さしすせそ are phonemically parsed as /sa si su se ...


8

ありがとうございます is a greeting which was lexicalized long ago, and I don't think it's a good idea to analyze it like this and try to apply the modern style guideline. And while most of the recent style guidelines do say hiragana should be used for auxiliary verbs, this is not a strict rule. Not many people strictly follow this in daily life. I can't say, for ...


7

て and って sound different. The /t/ sound in the latter is longer (or you might perceive is as if the latter has two /t/ sounds). This is called gemination. Gemination is rare in some languages (including English), so you might not be used to listening for it. One example is the /t/ sound in "hat trick" versus "Patrick". You might pronounce the t longer in ...


7

As it turns out, I actually researched this phenomenon the other day while doing some reading up on 旧字体【きゅうじたい】. As it turns out, what you're referring to are 書換字【かきかえじ】. Essentially, with the promulgation of the 当用漢字【とうようかんじ】 in 1946, the Japanese government decided to try to encourage some additional, more informal simplifications to bring vocabulary ...


7

While people will likely understand you if you mix them up, it's better to use proper one: ガラス = glass (material) 吹きガラス (glass blowing) ガラスの皿 (glass plate) グラス = a glass (for drinking) タンブラーグラス (tumbler glass) ワイングラス (wine glass), グラスワイン ([drink] a glass of wine) カクテルグラス (cocktail glass) ミキシンググラス (mixing glass) ~グラス = some other things made from glass, ...


7

That character is not exactly the tsu-character! The second character of もっと is called sokuon, it's not the normal hiragana 'つ'. The difference is that the sokuon is smaller (other than that, they are identical, so your question is totally understandable). For this reason it is also called small-tsu (or chiisaitsu in Japanese). The sokuon is used to carry ...


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