38

な at the end of a sentence usually gives the sentence one of the following five meanings. 1. Seeking confirmation This usage is probably the most common. The addition of な to the end of a sentence gives the sentence the tone that the speaker is seeking confirmation. The speaker does not wish to assert that he is 100% confident about what he is saying. ...


17

This usage of 「かい」, in real life, is largely limited to male speakers of the Kanto region and even among those, they only use it with people that they know very well and that are as old as or younger than the speaker. It must also be made clear that it is very informal. Do not ever use it with a stranger or someone you have just met on the street. ...


16

I seriously hope your book explains who (what group of people) would say: 「どこかへお花見{はなみ}に行{い}きませんこと。」 ("Shall we go someplace for flower-viewing?") Upper-middle-class dames might say it, if no one else. More realistically speaking, though, I would almost exclusively expect to hear it in fiction as part of the role language for such a female character. ...


14

We are actually discussing TWO different kinds of 「や」 here, which is probably why you are more confused than you should be. In 「くつろいでくれや」, the 「や」 is a colloquial sentence-ending particle for 1) imperative, 2) invitation and 3) request. You are saying "(Please) make yourself at home." In 「それが実はアイロンではないからや」, the 「や」 is a dialectal sentence-ender mostly for ...


13

「やな」 is a Kansai affirmative sentence-ender used just like 「だな」 in Kanto. 「[久]{ひさ}しぶりやな。」 = "Long time no see, yeah?" or just "Long time no see!" 「いい[感]{かん}じやなぁ。」 = "That's cool.", "That's pretty good.", etc. Real Kansai people might use ええ, not いい for the second phrase, though.


13

ぜ and ぞ are sentence-final particles used (primarily) by male speakers which are more colloquial versions of the particle よ. In order of decreasing politeness, they are 逃げるよ。 逃げるぞ。 逃げるぜ。 The addition of よ・ぞ・ぜ give the statement an assertive feel, maybe like an exclamation mark or adding something like "hey!" (although that's already represented in ...


12

In anime and other works of fiction, ぜ sounds more tomboyish, boyish and/or childish. Typical users of ぜ are male kids from so-called 少年マンガ. For example, Satoshi from Pokémon uses ぜ frequently. An adult male character rarely uses ぜ, while ぞ may be used by old male people (and sometimes even by women who are speaking a bit playfully). In the real world, ぞ is ...


12

「~~もんね」 is a sentence-ender that is used mostly, if not exclusively, by children. Technically, both 「もの/もん」 and 「ね」 are sentence-ending particles, so the two are combined in 「もんね」. It is used to state or declare something boastfully, braggingly, etc. often with a hint of playfulness. "I'm gonna be rich; That's for sure!" "I'm gonna be rich, ...


11

[長]{なげ}え is a colloquial, masculine and a bit vulgar way of pronouncing [長]{なが}い. (Compare: うるさい→うるせえ, しらない→しらねえ, たべたい→たべてえ) The と in 長いと is a 接続助詞(conjunctive particle), meaning "if~~" or "when~~". So the なげえと(長いと) here means "If (your hair is) long" or "When (your hair is) long". バッサリいこうぜ!うっとうしいだろ長えとよ。(≒長いとうっとうしいだろ。) Let's cut it short. (Because) It'...


9

"Instead of 「か」, real questions in casual speech are usually asked with the explanatory の particle or nothing at all except for a rise in intonation" http://www.guidetojapanese.org/learn/grammar/question


9

This is not really an answer, but I would like to draw the attention to the distinction between speech in fictional work and speech in the real world. In fictional work, there is a set of words (most notably personal pronouns and function words) which are considered to be typical to a certain group of people, regardless of whether the people in the same ...


9

Your observation is accurate. There is difference between ぞ and ぜ, though ぜ has almost died out, at least in greater Tokyo. Basically, ぞ just straightforwardly tells one-sided subjective claims, while ぜ has function of confirmation, request, or advice, only in a rude and self-centered manner. ぜ couldn't be used if there's no listener, that is, you wouldn't ...


8

かも is short for かも知れない【しれない】, which loosely translates as "probably". In this case, "It might well be the beginning of a solution," would be a good translation.


8

This でな is indeed the te-form of だ, followed by な, a masculine sentence-final particle. A sentence-end で can have several different roles. Here, it may be a reason marker (i.e., explaining to someone why he has a sweet), in which case the combination of で + な roughly corresponds to "you know" in English. Or it may be a simple "continuation marker". As this ...


7

The way I have come to understand よ and ね, is that they mark ownership over a piece of information being used in conversation. よ marks a piece of information as being the speaker's, while ね marks it as being someone else's. This is known as epistemics within conversation analysis. For instance, if we look at the phrase "お兄さんは歯医者だよね?", the speaker expresses ...


7

No, this めぇ isn't a typo. It's a colloquial form of the negator まい, in which the vowel sequence /ai/ is replaced with the long vowel /eː/. You'll hear this sort of change in all sorts of words, not just in ない → ねぇ. The sentence ここは地獄じゃあるまいし means "It's not like this is hell".


7

そんで、いたの? (= それで、いたの?) means "And, was (it) there?" "And, did you see/find (it) there?" そんで is a colloquial, collapsed way of pronouncing それで. The subject for the verb いた(居た) is left out. いたじょいたじょ (= いたぞいたぞ) literally means "(It) was there, (it) was there." This is how 山田くん in anime ちびまる子ちゃん usually talks (e.g. 「~だじょー。」「~したじょー。」 ). I think young children ...


7

I think your confusion comes from the fact that there is more than one way to use particles for an emphatic effect. Sentence final particles Sentence final particles よ, ぞ, ぜ, わ and others are sometimes called emphatic particles. They are added to the end of a sentence for an emphatic effect — for example, conveying that you feel strongly about something. ...


7

Consider these simpler examples: リンゴは2個です。 The number of apples is two. 参加者は3人です。 The number of participants is three. 「箱の中には何がありますか?」「バナナが2本です。」 "What is in the box?" "Two bananas." Although "Apples are two" makes no sense in English, リンゴは2個です is a perfectly valid way to tell the number of things in Japanese. As you already know, the ...


6

Despite how it looks, っ doesn't only double the consonant "t" but is an all-around geminator used with most of Japanese consonants. See the Wikipedia article. And for the last part 「っけ」, this page will be helpful. ProTip™: Although Wikipedia says you can't use っ with some consonants, the younger generation seems have acquired many untraditional geminations ...


6

かな can state any degree of probability, from nearly zero to all but certain. Another important feature is that かな conveys intent of communication, thus it could imply request or desire so much as English "I wonder". This word is usually only used in non-polite sentences (in most cases, the polite counterpart is でしょうか). Down to your particular case, the ...


6

How about んだけど 彼が出て行けばいいんだけど。 あの建物さえなければ、きれいな景色が見えるはずなんだけど。 欲しいといえば、買ってあげたんだけど。 Maybe no real synonym, but it is also a conjunction with the rest of the sentence omitted. のに means "although" and けど means more "but", but I guess that is close enough. In your last example せっかく…のに is a set phrase and のに can't be removed so easily. I'm also wondering ...


6

To add to what 無色受想行識 said, の is regularly used in conjunction with interrogative words, such as in どこに行くの?or 何を食べるの? Often when no interrogative word is used, rising intonation will mark that the sentence is a question, such as in 明日、パーティに行く? Additionally, の can be used to indicate surprise or disbelief. For example, A: 明日、パーティに行くよ。 B: 行くの? In this ...


6

It means ”だね”, and if I am not mistaken can be heard in the 関西 area. For example, せやな is the same as そうだね. So, いい感じやなぁ would be the same as いい感じだね.


6

According to デジタル大辞泉 and 大辞林, this や is a 終助詞 (sentence ending particle) rather than a 感動詞 (interjection). 「 3⃣-2 軽く言い放すような気持ちを表す。『もう、どうでもいいや』」(デジタル大辞泉) 「四-② 軽く言い放つような気持ち,または,なげやりな気持ちを表す。『まあ,いいや』『今さらどうしようもないや』」(大辞林) I think や as an "interjection expressing surprise" is something like... 「( 感 ) ① 驚いた時に発する語。『や、こんな所にあった』」(大辞林) / 「〘感〙驚きの気持ちを表す。やっ。やあ。『...


6

I think your Japanese friend oversimplified the explanation. It is true that some sentence-final particles are strongly associated with certain regions in Japan (or sometimes even certain foreign countries), but at least わ and ぜ are generally considered as regionally neutral. English Wikipedia describes わ and ぜ as follows (From Sentence-final particle#...


6

It depends. の in a question to make sure is used by both male and female people. So the following lines can be naturally said by a male or female speaker. 「行くの? 行かないの?」 「ディズニーランドに行きたいの?」 「高校で水泳部だったの?」 Assertive sentences which end with の are usually feminine, although there are a few men who use this kind of の. For example, 「ディズニーランドに行きたいの。」 「ミニーちゃんが大好きなの〜...


6

(a) Who is the subject? It must be decided from the context. It's perhaps "you", but it can be "he", "they", or whatever, depending on the context. (b) What is the object? The object is 後任, of course. を is the object marker. The corresponding verb is implied and omitted. Generally speaking, a sentence that ends with を tends to have an implied verb that ...


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