I think your Japanese friend oversimplified the explanation. It is true that some sentence-final particles are strongly associated with certain regions in Japan (or sometimes even certain foreign countries), but at least わ and ぜ are generally considered as regionally neutral.
English Wikipedia describes わ and ぜ as follows (From Sentence-final particle#Japanese):
- わ wa: soft declarative or emphatic. Used primarily by women, this particle has a meaning similar to yo, but it is less assertive.
- ぜ ze: informal hortative/emphatic. Used to push someone to do something, or to remind them of something. In certain contexts, it can carry a threatening overtone.
Some sentence-end particles have important grammatical roles and are used in so-called standard Japanese (for example, か for making a question and ね for agreement). Some sentence-end particles are basically meaningless fillers, and chosen depending on the speaker's sex, age, character, preference, etc. If you keep on enjoying Japanese manga and anime, you will soon realize the typical character by which わ and ぜ are used. ぜ is largely considered as part of tough-guy speech.
It is even possible to create a brand-new sentence-final particle to characterize an imaginary character! See: On the grammar of みんな見るメロ
FWIW, here are some sentence-end particles which are heavily dialectal and associated with a certain region in Japan. These are actively used by local people.
- けろ: Tohoku (used to make a request, like "please")
- ばい, たい: Kyushu
- じゃ: western Honshu, esp. Hiroshima prefecture
- や, ねん: Osaka