15

You can use なる (to become) to indicate change, as follows: うまくなる (い-adjective, い->く) 上手になる (な-adjective + に) These both mean "to become good/skilled". Then for "to become more skilled" you can use もっと, さらに or 前より: もっと上手になる to become better さらに上手になる to become even better 前より上手になる to become better than before


14

When to drop "な" depends on the phrase. 客観的事実 is a very common set phrase, but 印象的事実 is not. You have to usually say "それは印象的な事実(でした)", unless you were a philosopher and ready to give 印象的事実 some definition. 的 is not special; there are several kanji which can connect two nouns and help to make longer compounds without hiragana particles. ~風 (~ style) ...


14

的 makes 世界 into a 形容動詞 ("na-adjective"), which, when functioning as adverb, turns into ~的に. ~的では is simply ungrammatical.


12

In traditional grammar, words that inflect, called 用言{ようげん}, are given six inflected forms, called 活用形{かつようけい}: 未然形(みぜんけい)   irrealis form 連用形(れんようけい)  continuative form 終止形(しゅうしけい)  terminal form 連体形(れんたいけい)  adnominal form 仮定形(かていけい)   hypothetical form (see note 1) 命令形(めいれいけい)  imperative form And in traditional grammar, だ is considered a type of 助動詞{...


11

The word 便利 is a so-called な-adjective. When な-adjectives directly modify a noun, な has to be added between it and the noun it's modifying (hence the name). So, "便利な工具" means "a handy/useful tool". As for your second question: You can call it a particle in the sense that it's a small word which serves a grammatical function, but I don't know if a linguist ...


10

便利{べんり} is a な-adjective, which is used to modify a noun, in this case, 工具{こうぐ}. When modifying a noun, な must be placed after な-adjectives (便利{べんり}) and before the noun it modifies(工具{こうぐ}). The phrase 便利な工具 would translate then, to "convenient/useful tool(s)" I am not sure if most would consider the な a particle, or simply a suffix used with な-...


9

(I was surprised to see that I cannot find another thread that discusses this. Perhaps my search-fu is weak...) The な used for adjectives has a clear historical derivation. This started as に, the adverbial particle, + あり, the classical terminal (sentence-ending) form of modern ある. に + あり then contracted to なり for the terminal form. If a な adjective came ...


9

Actually, your question is right and your answer is wrong. You will only use な after a "na-adjective" if you're modifying a noun/adjective with it, for instance: あなたの部屋はきれいですか (anata no heya wa kirei desu ka) Is your room beautiful? はい、きれいですよ (hai, kirei desu yo) Yep, it is beautiful. きれい is not modifying any noun, therefore there's no need for ...


9

Basically you should stick to 最高の~. Personally I feel 最高な~ sounds slightly peculiar. In BCCWJ, there are 2410 examples of 最高の, and only less than 20 examples of 最高な + noun. As for the meaning, I see no difference. All the examples of 最高な + noun in BCCWJ seemed safely interchangeable with 最高の.


9

勝手 can also be taken to mean arbitrary. Instead of directly referencing the definition of 'selfish' with all its English connotations, it's easier to think of it as describing the basic idea of just doing as one pleases; without approval, without auxiliary, and with their own judgement. While 'arbitrary' doesn't carry the negative connotation that both ...


8

In short, -raka and -yaka are compound of -ra + -ka and -ya + -ka, respectively. -ra, -ya, and -ka are all derivational suffixes that add a stative sense. -ya is rather rare. In the Old Japanese corpus, I can only find three words: nikoya, nagoya, and fuwaya. This suggests that suffix was of only limited productivity then and explains why it was soon ...


8

First of all, it's worth noting that Japanese has no 形容詞 or 形容動詞(な-adjective) which directly corresponds to the English adjective sick. (although you can say 「彼の具合【ぐあい】が悪【わる】い 」, if you don't mind replacing the subject) We can say 「彼 は [病名] だ」、「[病名] の 人」、「 [病名] に なる」、where [病名] can be 癌 (cancer), 肺炎 (pneumonia), 糖尿病 (diabetes), 骨粗鬆症 (osteoporosis), or 病気 (...


8

Short answer Here, 「綺麗に」 is like English beautifully. You use に for the same reason you use -ly in English. Long answer I wouldn't call に a 'particle' here. What it is depends on which analysis you're using: In the traditional Japanese grammar learned by students in Japanese schools (学校文法), na-adjectives are called 形容動詞, and they're taught that 形容動詞 ...


8

有名 is a na-adjective and thus is followed by だ・で・な・に (or by じゃ < では) あの人は有名だ lit. that person is famous あの人は有名な人だ lit. that person is a famous person あの人はきっと有名になる lit. that person is surely going to become famous You can think of ではありません or じゃありません as the negative of です (which in turn is the polite form of だ whose negative would be ...


8

Part of the confusion appears to arise from the fact that your two "sentences" are actually incomplete. 私の友達は綺麗な人 私の友達は綺麗だった人 These are fragments: they are only phrases, not full sentences. They could end in the copula (だ for plain-form familiar speech, です for polite speech), or they could end in something completely different: 私の友達は綺麗な人 [をかみ殺して食べる。] - ...


8

適当: This is actually a tricky word because it has two seemingly opposite meanings. 適当 especially in casual speech usually means "careless", "irresponsible", "lightheaded", "random", etc. 適当 in formal writings usually means "suitable", "corresponding", "fitting", etc. For example 適当な店 can mean "suitable restaurant" or "randomly-chosen restaurant" depending on ...


7

The term 「細やか」, as suggested by the letter "細", has the nuance like finesse, delicateness, subtleness, sensitiveness. So when it is used to modify 配慮(concideration/care), the outline of the meaning of the expression "細やかな配慮" is that there has been a careful, adequate and warm care for the students, which supported each student in need. The support was ...


7

ホームシック is understood as describing the state of being homesick. You can parallel it with 病気 (as in ホームシックになる vs. 病気になる, ホームシックの時 vs. 病気の時), but being perceived as a noun doesn't imply that it is describing a disease. メタボ (derived from メタボリックシンドローム{metabolic syndrome}) appears to be used both as noun and as na-adjective, e.g. メタボの人 vs. メタボな人. Moreover, I ...


7

I found the following in A Dictionary of Advanced Japanese Grammar: No-adjectives are just like nouns in terms of their syntactic rules (e.g. they require no when they modify nouns), but they cannot be marked by case particles such as ga and o. In other words, they are not nouns. The only syntactic difference between na-adjectives and no-adjectives is ...


7

The answer is no. Some na-adjectives are from Western languages (e.g., スマートな, アバンギャルドな) and some are from native Japanese words (e.g., 朗らかな, 静かな). As an aside, there are also a few i-adjectives coined from English (e.g., エモい, エロい, ラグい), although they are mostly slang. As for spelling, it is true that the dictionary forms of most na-adjectives are written in ...


6

The simplest way of saying "you've gotten better" is 上手になりました. A lot of the time you hear ね after that :)


6

新たな sounds more literary, as already pointed out. In addition, the usage of 新た is limited. 新たな/新たに is only used to describe something is created/started from scratch. When you want to compare the age or freshness of something, 新しい is the only choice. In addition, at least in modern Japanese, 新たな/新たに only works as a modifier (新たな is adjectival, 新たに, ...


6

「必死で走る」「必死に走る」 both sound perfectly fine to me, and I believe these are both grammatically correct. I understand that in these expressions the に isn't a particle (I think it indicates the adverbial form of a na-adjective) I think you're right. According to 明鏡国語辞典, 「必死」 is a 形容動詞/na-adjective, so it conjugates to its 連用形/continuative form 「必死に」 to modify ...


5

Mr. Li is cheerful, healthy, and interesting." It would be リさんはあかるくて、げんきで、おもしろいです。 Yes, you're right. What I don't understand is how to connect negative adjective sentences, like if I wanna say "Mr. Li is cheerful, not healthy, and not interesting." It would be リさんはあかるくて、げんきではなくて、おもしろくありません, word for word, but it would be more natural to say リさんはあかるいけど、...


5

AはBが好き/嫌いだ means A likes/dislikes B. は indicates the theme and が indicate the subject, it litteraly means "About A : B is liked". There are many adjectives that follow this pattern in which what would be the direct object in english is the subject in japanese. 私は彼が羨ましい。 I envy him. "To me, he is enviable." Not strictly an answer to your question ...


5

If you mean "risky and speculative", then you should say 危険で投機的な, because that's one of dedicated meaning 連用形 has. Saying 「危険な、投機的な事業」 (putting a comma is a good practice) for this meaning is not prohibited, but it either sounds like adding words one by one while you're speaking, which isn't very nice for written language; or could mean "risky or ...


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