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28

It depends on the meaning. 中 used to mean "during / in the process of" must be pronounced ちゅう (as in ジョン's post) インストール中【ちゅう】 now installing 読込【よみこみ】中【ちゅう】 now loading 建築【けんちく】中【ちゅう】 under construction But in other uses, such as "all throughout" or "out of (all the)", it is commonly read じゅう (although it seems that ちゅう is also an option?): 世界【...


23

It's short for の家{うち}. You will normally see the abbreviation んち: (1a) 俺の家に来い。 (1b) 俺んちに来い。 (2a) お前の家に行きたいなぁ。 (2b) お前んちに行きたいなぁ。 But in cases where there is already an ん before the abbreviation (like おばあちゃん ends in ん in this case) we just see ち: (3a) タモリさんの家に行きたい。 (3b) タモリさんちに行きたい。 (4a) 明日麻美ちゃんの家に行く。 (4b) 明日麻美ちゃんちに行く。 So your sentences ...


22

「め」 is a suffix of contempt when attached to a noun or another person's name. 「この[犬]{いぬ}め!」= "You stupid dog!" 「[許]{ゆる}せん、[田中]{たなか}め!」= "Will never forgive Tanaka the bastard!" Translation is an art. You could use whatever word you feel appropriate for the context that expresses contempt, scorn, disdain, etc. Please note, however, that it becomes a ...


14

The biggest mistake you have made is in trusting that translation, which is not even close to the original. コケ does not mean "fool"; It is not even a noun. It is from the verb こける, which means "to trip over", "to fall down", etc. っぷり comes from ふ り, which means "the manner / way in which one performs an action". 食べっぷりがいい, for instance, means that someone ...


14

Language is not a science, nor is translation. There should be no such thing as the single best translation for 「~~中{ちゅう}」. Whatever sounds best for the context in the target language would be the best. in, within, during, while, in the middle of, in the course of, under (as in "under investigation" = 「調査中{ちょうさちゅう}」), etc. Thus, no matter what word ...


13

When to drop "な" depends on the phrase. 客観的事実 is a very common set phrase, but 印象的事実 is not. You have to usually say "それは印象的な事実(でした)", unless you were a philosopher and ready to give 印象的事実 some definition. 的 is not special; there are several kanji which can connect two nouns and help to make longer compounds without hiragana particles. ~風 (~ style) ...


12

I know さ as a way to nominalize a noun. I'm assuming you mean a way to nominalise an adjective. And that's what we have here. [煙]{けむ}い is an adjective meaning 'smoky'. So [煙]{けむ}さ is the nominalised version meaning 'smokiness'. Could you omit さ without changing the meaning? I guess it's not quite the same, but that's a bit too subtle for my language skills....


11

The reading when used as a suffix in this case is ちゅう (the on-yomi of the character 中) So インストール中 is pronounced インストールちゅう. The meaning is "installing", or "in the process of installation". More generally, 〜中 used in this way can be thought to mean "in the process of ~" Edit: There is another possible usage of 〜中 which Hyperworm describes in their answer.


11

The short answer to your initial question is no. The historical/etymological spelling of 〜ましょう was 〜ませう, which is the expected form of the volitional, since the irrealis (未然形) stem of 〜ます is 〜ませ. Regular sound change explains the rest: せう becomes しょう. The same story applies to the consonant-stem (五段活用) verbs: the old spelling for 行こう was 行かう (as seen here) ...


11

Yes, 人【にん】 is a counter "agrees" with person, but no, it cannot play the role of a noun. Counters only makes a number able to modify a noun, but grammar prohibits it from having noun meaning. Thus, if you want to tell "two hundred people" you always have to say 200人【にん】の人【ひと】. It however doesn't mean the noun is not omissible. 村には500人の人が住んでいたが、...


10

Totally unrelated. 山 さん [mountain] is a Chinese word "shān" assimilated in Japanese. さん as a honorific suffix is an old さま undergone some phonetical change. There are many homophones in Japanese besides that.


10

手裏剣をよけざま 「よけ」 should be 避ける(avoid/dodge). 「~しざま」 means "while / the moment / at the same time". It can be rephrased like 「~する際」 「~しながら」. So the sentence appears to be "he did something while he dodged the shuriken". It needs more context to be accurate. さま2 【様・▽方】 [2] 現代では普通「ざま」の形をとる。動詞連用形に付く。  (イ) …する瞬間、…すると同時の意を表す。    「すれ違い―」    「振り向き―」 ...


10

It is たいおうずみ. More generally, the suffix 済 or 済み is read as ずみ. This is an example of rendaku.


10

「[割]{わ}る」 here means "to dilute". See meaning #II-4 in http://kotobank.jp/jeword/%E5%89%B2%E3%82%8B?dic=pje3&oid=SPJE04759100 「[泡盛]{あわもり}のコーヒー割り」 = "awamori diluted with coffee" Other common terms containing 「割り」: ウイスキーのソーダ割り/[水]{みず}割り [焼酎]{しょうちゅう}のウーロン[茶]{ちゃ}割り


10

The かん here is 間 in kanji, and this is used as a suffix to refer to a span of time. ろくしゅう in your sentence is spelled 六週 in kanji and means "six weeks", but in a way that is more ambiguous than the English. Various suffixes can be added on the end to make things more specific, like 目{め} to mean "the sixth week", or 分{ぶん} to indicate six weeks' worth of ...


10

~っぴ/~っち is a sort of "suffix" which generates cute-sounding nicknames. Think of it as an rough equivalent of -ie as in doggie, walkie-talkie, etc. へたっぴ (下手【へた】 + っぴ, clumsy person) けろけろけろっぴ (けろけろ + っぴ) たまごっち (たまご + っち) 弱っぴい itself is not common (probably I haven't seen this before), but it should simply mean "weak boy/guy".


9

A方{ほう}がB means "more B if A" or "Ber if A": 早く行った方が良かったでしょう。 It would have been better [more good] if (we/you/I etc) had gone early, would it not? The 方 here indicates a direction/side when comparing 2 or more things ([3] (イ) of this definition at Daijirin), in this case implying going early would have been better than going later.


9

Context is important. With passive verbs you should look for a に before the verb that will mark the person or thing that performs the verb. This is not the same as the subject of the verb. For example, if you see the short phrase: お兄さんに食べられた。 You can figure out pretty quickly from the に that this is not the potential. The subject of the sentence is an ...


9

There are various agent suffixes or just plain nouns that get used in Japanese, as opposed to the one straightforward -er suffix in English. You've mentioned a few, but all with the on'yomi -- the kun'yomi get used too for at least the following: 手 shu in on'yomi compounds, te in kun'yomi compounds 選手 senshu -- "chosen hand" → player chosen to be on a team ...


9

Yes. ~様 is an honorific and can be easily thought of as a more respectful version of ~さん. It is gender neutral, so it can be used by both men and women when addressing either gender. It is often used when addressing someone of a higher social position, or someone for whom you have high regards. On a day-to-day basis, it's commonly used to address ...


9

This is an example of how 〜上{じょう} can be suffixed to various kinds of media, similar to how we say “on television” or “on the internet” in English. Note that 〜上 can also be used for books/magazines, even though it would be “in a book/magazine” in English. Examples: テレビ上に映し出される映像 ラジオ上での対談 雑誌上のインタビュー パソコン上に保存してあるファイル パンフレット上に書いてあります etc. Interestingly, the ...


9

「つき」is a suffix to a noun, meaning "attached, accompanied with, affected," for example: ひも付き - a string attached 条件付き - condition attached, conditional 期限付き - with a time-limit 賞味期限付き - with a pull-date stipulated [曰]{いわ}くつき(の品) - sth with an odd story behind it 昼食(弁当)付き - a lunch included (in a day-trip fare) 三食付きの宿 - an ...


8

Written Japanese contains a syllabary (like an alphabet) called Kana. All of the "letters" in this syllabary, with the exception of the "letter" "N" (ん/ン) end in a vowel. Thus anytime a foreign word ends in a consonant (with the exception of "N"), it is natural for a Japanese speaker to pronounce this consonant with a vowel after it. This is not a question ...


8

While in ordinary speech we use 論 as a suffix roughly means "theory on ~; argument for ~", in most of academic fields those ideas are conveyed by 理論 e.g. ひも理論 "string theory", 最適性理論 "optimality theory" or プロスペクト理論 "prospect theory" etc. (except for mathematics, where they seem to use 論 to translate the term "theory"). In academia, the suffix 学 is used to ...


8

The kanji 中 on the end as a kind of suffix generally has two different meanings, depending on context and how it's read. When read as ちゅう: "in the middle of doing; in the state of being", as in l'électeur's examples. When read as じゅう: "all over, throughout; sometime during", as in 体{からだ}中{じゅう} "all over the body, all throughout the body" or 今日{きょう}中{じゅう} "...


8

アメッシュ (a registered trademark Tokyo Metropolitan Government), refers to the system which tells us how much rainfall is observed at each location in the metropolitan area. The data is given in the form of grid, or mesh, consisting of 150m*150m squares (cf. Tokyo Amesh/About Tokyo Amesh) . Apparently this is where -ッシュ comes from.


8

Is it otaku version of -さん? Yes...sort of. Originally, -氏【し】 is a honorific and highly formal name suffix used to refer to someone with high social status. There are several existing questions regarding its non-otaku, "proper" usage on this site: What criteria decides whether to print 「氏」 or 「さん」 at the end of a person's name in newspapers? What does ...


7

It does not seem to me that you have any trouble translating the sentence in question, but here is my translation. やってみよう:ブラウンコーパスのニュースとロマンスの 2 つのジャンルのデータを利用して、どの曜日がもっとも新聞っぽく、どの曜日がもっともロマンチックかを調べてみよう。 Try this: Using the data of the genres News and Romance in the Brown Corpus, find out which day of the week is the most newspaper-ish and which day is ...


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