33

「彼{かれ}ら は 自分{じぶん} の 事{こと} しか 考{かんが}えて いません。」 While the translation: "They only think of themselves." is a valid one in the sense that it successfully conveys the basic meaning of the original, it can also be highly misleading as far as the grammatical understanding of the original. The original Japanese sentence is indeed in the negative form even ...


28

Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) in English Every language has lexical items which are restricted, seemingly arbitrarily, to specific contexts. Let's start with some English sentences to introduce the concept: ​1a. I don't like her at all. ​1b. *I like her at all. The first sentence is fine, but the second sentence doesn't work because at all is a ...


19

This is a pair of polarity items. One appears in positive contexts, the other in negative: イギリスの ジャムは とても おいしいです。 イギリスの ジャムは あまり おいしくありません。 Every language has words like these. For example, in English: I like pie, too. I don't like pie, either. Here, too and either are polarity items. In our positive sentence we use too, and in our negative ...


16

The ん negative ending is a contraction of sorts of classical negative ending ぬ, precursor to modern ない. It's still pretty common. As illustration of this, the Microsoft IME gives 食べん as a valid conversion option after typing in taben, or 飲まん for noman. Note that する with the negative ん is not しん, but instead せん, as again the negative ん is from classical ぬ, ...


16

It's not common at all and I don't remember whether I've heard it in my entire life, but ありがとうございません is not gibberish, and it could pass as a meaningful wordplay to describe ありがた迷惑 if used in an appropriate situation. "Thanks but no thanks" could be usable in an ordinary conversation, but ありがとうございません is a pure joke and it's never used when you are truly ...


15

This sentence can technically mean both, but it usually (or almost always) means 1. To mean 2., we normally say 彼は来ないことを知りませんでした。 = He didn't know about the (someone else's) absense. because 彼 is the topic of the whole sentence. In other words, the use of が after 彼 more or less indicates that "彼がこない" is the relative clause which modifies こと.


13

You can add focus particles like は or も to verbs, but in order to do so, you have to split the verb into two parts so that the particle has some place to go. We'll split the verb into its continuative stem (called 連用形 in Japanese) and the verb する. For example:   忘れる   → 忘れ+する   忘れる+も = 忘れもする Or:   忘れない   → 忘れ+しない   忘れない+は = 忘れはしない Your example is a ...


13

Here's where 歩けなく comes from: Start with the verb 歩く, "to walk". Turn it into its potential form: 歩ける, "able to walk". Make it negative: 歩けない, "unable to walk". Turn the newly formed i-adjective into an adverb: 歩けなく. Now, なっちゃう is a shorter form of なって + しまう. なって, of course, is the -て form of なる, which means "to become". なる requires that the adjective ...


11

Using the terms from snailboat's link: Not [force doing] He didn't have me wash the dishes (but I washed them because I was bored). Similar to → He did not force me to wash the dishes. Force [not doing] He had me not wash the dishes (because I'm really clumsy). Similar to → He forced me to not wash the dishes. Verbs in the form 〜せなかった/〜せませんでした are ...


11

That ん isn't a shortening of ぬ, it's a shortening of the auxiliary む. According to Classical Japanese rules, the negative ~ぬ is the 連体形 of ~ず. This means it is used to modify nouns. In particular, you cannot end a sentence with it, so that means that this ん cannot be an abbreviation of ~ぬ. In modern Japanese, the distinction between 連体形 and 終止形 has been ...


11

While it’s not impossible to interpret, it is unusual (far more than “thanks, but no thanks”). This is mainly because the grammatical construction of 〜うございます is mostly no longer productive and ありがとうございます is completely lexicalized, so you’re doing something odd to the end of a word. Similar to だいじょばない, perhaps. You could imagine this being used by an anime ...


10

That なにも is a Guiding Adverb that leads partial negation. It means nothing by itself but functions as a sign that tells that partial negation is following. It's different from normal なに+も ((not) anything) in the point of pitch accent. [なにも{HLL} vs なに{LH}+も{H}] e.g. 何も、急がなくてもいいじゃないか You don't need to hurry, do you? Other examples of Guiding Adverbs are もし(...


10

「おまえ、そんな体験したこともねぇのにわかったようなこと言うなっ」 How can I know? When it's spoken, you could easily tell the difference by the pitch accent: わかったようなこと[言うな]{LHL} ← negative imperative わかったようなこと[言うな]{LHH} ← mild emphasis, emotion But in writing it could be ambiguous. So I'd write it as 「言うなっ!」or 「言うなよ」 etc. to clearly show that it's negative imperative. To clearly ...


10

There are at least three types of omission of く, which should be distinguished. The "traditional western" euphoric change is called ウ音便 and is described in this question, this one and a chart in this page. ku becomes (y)u, etc. This sounds old-fashioned and elegant. While this is commonly heard in samurai dramas, only a few courteous elder people use this ...


9

"Does anyone know what to call the outdated, high form of language which will say for example "ならぬ" rather than "ならない" or more accurately "だめだ"?" We call it 「[文語体]{ぶんごたい}」 or 「文語[調]{ちょう}」("Literary style") as opposed to 「[口語体]{こうごたい}」 or 「口語調」 ("Colloquial style"). "Specifically, I would like to know if there is a name for the dialect used by Kuchiki ...


9

If sentence A has a comma like: A: 宿題をして、行かない生徒が多いです。 B: 宿題をしないで行く生徒が多いです。 then Sjiveru is right. However, it doesn't have a comma, so they have the same meaning. They mean "There are many students who go without doing their homework." The して行かない doesn't mean "don't go" but "don't do their homework."


9

The sentence A: A: 宿題をして行かない生徒が多いです。 This almost always means "There are many students who go to school without doing their homework." (ie, they go to school anyway) In English, "Don't drink and drive" always means "Don't drive after you drink", not "Don't drink! Do drive!". Here "drink-and-drive" is ...


9

According to Shogakukan's big 国{こく}語{ご}大{だい}辞{じ}典{てん}, the verb ending -masu ultimately derived from a combination of humble polite auxiliary verb 参{まい}る plus the verb する, as a shift from either ‑mairasuru or possibly ‑maisuru. The final ‑su in modern ‑masu conjugates identically to classical su / suru. The 未然形{みぜんけい} ("...


9

「お/ご + Verb in 連用形{れんようけい} (continuative form) + なく 」 should be learned as a set phrase meaning "Please do not (verb)." The grammar used here is sort of special. One might say a phrase like 「お願{ねが}いいたします」 is implied or left unsaid at the end. This is an honorific form of a polite request rather than a plain imperative. The honorific お/ご at the beginning ...


9

「いや おまえの 嗜好{しこう}はいい」 「いい」 already has the meaning of "not needed" all by itself without any context. In this context, the negative 「いや」 should also help one understand that 「いい」 would be used for its negative meaning. See definition 3-㋑ in goo辞書, which says: ㋑十分過{じゅうぶんす}ぎる。その必要{ひつよう}がない。 This usage of 「いい」 is actually very common, especially in ...


8

This usage of いる is unrelated to its usual function as a grammar element. 〜ている 食事を食べている "I am eating my meal" (progressive) "I eat meals" (habitual) ?? "I eat my meal and I am here (/I exist)" (conjunction) Reading #3 is never used because no one would ever need to say that. I included it only to show that the て-form does normally perform a ...


8

I am no longer sure about the reason why 食べなさ sounds strange. In the answer below, I argued that 食べなさ “the degree of not eating” would be grammatically fine but semantically not useful in any context. However, as dainichi commented, this explanation is questionable. For example, different people have different “degrees of not eating vegetables”; some may ...


8

I think you could say something like this:   出かけないでおこう     (plain)   出かけないでおきましょう  (polite) Since your example includes 出かけません, I assume you want the polite version.


8

Seeing this particular phrase 力なくなく for the first time myself, I cannot think of it as anything else but a kind of 畳語 (reduplicated words/phrases) version of the adverbial phrase 力無く (without strength; limply, exhaustedly), with the meaning unchanged. Using 力なくなく as double negative (i.e. not without strength) would be pushing it both grammatically and ...


8

what is the original form The verb する. and how does it become せず? ず is an auxiliary verb ([助動詞]{じょどうし}) which attaches to the [未然形]{みぜんけい} of the verb. せ is one 未然形 of する and is the one which ず attaches to.


8

Dictionaries say すぎる in this meaning is placed: after the 連用形 of a verb, like 動きすぎる after the stem of an i-adjective, like やさしすぎる and after the stem of a na-adjective, like しずかすぎる. つまらない is an adjective so I think つまらなすぎる is natural.  Generally, when すぎる is placed after ない: in the case of the adjective ない, it uses さ, like なさすぎる as you say in the case of ...


8

A: 僕は学生でもないし、先生でもない。 B: 僕は学生でもなく、先生でもない。 C: 僕は学生でもなければ、先生でもない。 D: 僕は学生でも、先生でもない。 what is the correct grammar for "... neither x nor y ..." in Japanese? I think 「~も~もない」「~もないし~もない」「~もなく~もない」「~もなければ~もない」 are all correct, natural, and commonly used. To me, 「~もなく~もない」 sounds a bit literary, 「~もなければ~もない」 sounds a bit literary and emphatic, and 「~もないし~...


8

There are generally 3 categories of verbs, and their names depend on which textbook you use. There are Type 1 (五段), Type 2 (一段), and Irregular verbs. The conjugation for negative form for Type 1 verbs: Change the final sound to the corresponding one that ends in -a, then append ない 切る→切ら→切らない 歩く→歩か→歩かない 会う→会わ→会わない (not 会あない) 帰る→帰ら→帰らない The conjugation for ...


8

The double negation of i-adjectives not only exists, but it is quite commonly used among us native speakers when expressing opinions indirectly. Take 「おいしい」 ("tasty") for example, by far the most common double-negative form would be: 「おいしくなくはない」 which means: "(the food) is okay/passable if not great" That sounds fairly indirect, doesn't it? The ...


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