26

Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) in English Every language has lexical items which are restricted, seemingly arbitrarily, to specific contexts. Let's start with some English sentences to introduce the concept: ​1a. I don't like her at all. ​1b. *I like her at all. The first sentence is fine, but the second sentence doesn't work because at all is a ...


18

Your "usual rule" is incomplete. It should be: drop -i if resulting is a single mora in length, add -sa add -sou. Hence, nai: na na + sa na + sa + sou --> nasasou. atui: atu (not applicable) atu + sou --> atusou.


17

This is a pair of polarity items. One appears in positive contexts, the other in negative: イギリスの ジャムは とても おいしいです。 イギリスの ジャムは あまり おいしくありません。 Every language has words like these. For example, in English: I like pie, too. I don't like pie, either. Here, too and either are polarity items. In our positive sentence we use too, and in our negative ...


16

It's not common at all and I don't remember whether I've heard it in my entire life, but ありがとうございません is not gibberish, and it could pass as a meaningful wordplay to describe ありがた迷惑 if used in an appropriate situation. "Thanks but no thanks" could be usable in an ordinary conversation, but ありがとうございません is a pure joke and it's never used when you are truly ...


15

The ん negative ending is a contraction of sorts of classical negative ending ぬ, precursor to modern ない. It's still pretty common. As illustration of this, the Microsoft IME gives 食べん as a valid conversion option after typing in taben, or 飲まん for noman. Note that する with the negative ん is not しん, but instead せん, as again the negative ん is from classical ぬ, ...


15

This sentence can technically mean both, but it usually (or almost always) means 1. To mean 2., we normally say 彼は来ないことを知りませんでした。 = He didn't know about the (someone else's) absense. because 彼 is the topic of the whole sentence. In other words, the use of が after 彼 more or less indicates that "彼がこない" is the relative clause which modifies こと.


13

You can add focus particles like は or も to verbs, but in order to do so, you have to split the verb into two parts so that the particle has some place to go. We'll split the verb into its continuative stem (called 連用形 in Japanese) and the verb する. For example:   忘れる   → 忘れ+する   忘れる+も = 忘れもする Or:   忘れない   → 忘れ+しない   忘れない+は = 忘れはしない Your example is a ...


13

Here's where 歩けなく comes from: Start with the verb 歩く, "to walk". Turn it into its potential form: 歩ける, "able to walk". Make it negative: 歩けない, "unable to walk". Turn the newly formed i-adjective into an adverb: 歩けなく. Now, なっちゃう is a shorter form of なって + しまう. なって, of course, is the -て form of なる, which means "to become". なる requires that the adjective ...


12

Actually, you've already got the right answer! The verb in question is する, and one of its negative stems (未然形) is せ〜, as in せず, せぬ, and as you've just discovered, せん. The other negative stem of する is the well-known し〜. Note that these are not interchangeable: **せない is ungrammatical, as is **しず. The only verbs that have this extra negative stem are する and ...


11

Using the terms from snailboat's link: Not [force doing] He didn't have me wash the dishes (but I washed them because I was bored). Similar to → He did not force me to wash the dishes. Force [not doing] He had me not wash the dishes (because I'm really clumsy). Similar to → He forced me to not wash the dishes. Verbs in the form 〜せなかった/〜せませんでした are ...


11

That ん isn't a shortening of ぬ, it's a shortening of the auxiliary む. According to Classical Japanese rules, the negative ~ぬ is the 連体形 of ~ず. This means it is used to modify nouns. In particular, you cannot end a sentence with it, so that means that this ん cannot be an abbreviation of ~ぬ. In modern Japanese, the distinction between 連体形 and 終止形 has been ...


11

While it’s not impossible to interpret, it is unusual (far more than “thanks, but no thanks”). This is mainly because the grammatical construction of 〜うございます is mostly no longer productive and ありがとうございます is completely lexicalized, so you’re doing something odd to the end of a word. Similar to だいじょばない, perhaps. You could imagine this being used by an anime ...


10

「おまえ、そんな体験したこともねぇのにわかったようなこと言うなっ」 How can I know? When it's spoken, you could easily tell the difference by the pitch accent: わかったようなこと[言うな]{LHL} ← negative imperative わかったようなこと[言うな]{LHH} ← mild emphasis, emotion But in writing it could be ambiguous. So I'd write it as 「言うなっ!」or 「言うなよ」 etc. to clearly show that it's negative imperative. To clearly ...


10

There are at least three types of omission of く, which should be distinguished. The "traditional western" euphoric change is called ウ音便 and is described in this question, this one and a chart in this page. ku becomes (y)u, etc. This sounds old-fashioned and elegant. While this is commonly heard in samurai dramas, only a few courteous elder people use this ...


9

That なにも is a Guiding Adverb that leads partial negation. It means nothing by itself but functions as a sign that tells that partial negation is following. It's different from normal なに+も ((not) anything) in the point of pitch accent. [なにも{HLL} vs なに{LH}+も{H}] e.g. 何も、急がなくてもいいじゃないか You don't need to hurry, do you? Other examples of Guiding Adverbs are もし(...


9

If sentence A has a comma like: A: 宿題をして、行かない生徒が多いです。 B: 宿題をしないで行く生徒が多いです。 then Sjiveru is right. However, it doesn't have a comma, so they have the same meaning. They mean "There are many students who go without doing their homework." The して行かない doesn't mean "don't go" but "don't do their homework."


9

According to Shogakukan's big 国{こく}語{ご}大{だい}辞{じ}典{てん}, the verb ending -masu ultimately derived from a combination of humble polite auxiliary verb 参{まい}る plus the verb する, as a shift from either ‑mairasuru or possibly ‑maisuru. The final ‑su in modern ‑masu conjugates identically to classical su / suru. The 未然形{みぜんけい} ("...


9

This 何ひとつ is a negative polarity item. This means 何ひとつ is always followed by a negative expression, and 何ひとつ by itself is an intensifier. You asked about "何ひとつ in a negative sentence", but there is no such a thing as "何ひとつ in an affirmative (non-negative) sentence"! (何ひとつ思い出せる is simply ungrammatical.) The translation of your sentence is "I cannot remember (...


8

Other samples from this character in your manga would be helpful to confirm this, but my guess is that せん is equivalent to しない (and possibly derived from せぬ, see Zhen Lin's comment below). Then, 苦労せん means something like "don't worry" or "don't fret". This is really part of the group of dialects from 'Western Japan'. In particular, [九州弁]{きゅうしゅうべん} uses せんで ...


8

In Japanese, a 助動詞 is a conjugatable particle, as opposed to 助詞 which do not conjugate. Like noun, verb etc, 助動詞 is now considered a part of of speech. The terminology is rather unfortunate, but originally (early Meiji) it was sub-classified under the category of verb (動詞). This is due to the influence of English in which 助動詞 represents "auxiliary verbs" ...


8

This usage of いる is unrelated to its usual function as a grammar element. 〜ている 食事を食べている "I am eating my meal" (progressive) "I eat meals" (habitual) ?? "I eat my meal and I am here (/I exist)" (conjunction) Reading #3 is never used because no one would ever need to say that. I included it only to show that the て-form does normally perform a ...


8

I am no longer sure about the reason why 食べなさ sounds strange. In the answer below, I argued that 食べなさ “the degree of not eating” would be grammatically fine but semantically not useful in any context. However, as dainichi commented, this explanation is questionable. For example, different people have different “degrees of not eating vegetables”; some may ...


8

I think you could say something like this:   出かけないでおこう     (plain)   出かけないでおきましょう  (polite) Since your example includes 出かけません, I assume you want the polite version.


8

Seeing this particular phrase 力なくなく for the first time myself, I cannot think of it as anything else but a kind of 畳語 (reduplicated words/phrases) version of the adverbial phrase 力無く (without strength; limply, exhaustedly), with the meaning unchanged. Using 力なくなく as double negative (i.e. not without strength) would be pushing it both grammatically and ...


8

The sentence A: A: 宿題をして行かない生徒が多いです。 This almost always means "There are many students who go to school without doing their homework." (ie, they go to school anyway) In English, "Don't drink and drive" always means "Don't drive after you drink", not "Don't drink! Do drive!". Here "drink-and-drive" is treated as one set. And "Let's not go and see him" ...


8

Dictionaries say すぎる in this meaning is placed: after the 連用形 of a verb, like 動きすぎる after the stem of an i-adjective, like やさしすぎる and after the stem of a na-adjective, like しずかすぎる. つまらない is an adjective so I think つまらなすぎる is natural.  Generally, when すぎる is placed after ない: in the case of the adjective ない, it uses さ, like なさすぎる as you say in the case of ...


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