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36

It's a contraction of です. It's not quite as polite as that though - it's always sounded a bit like "thinking that one needs to be polite but not bothering to do it properly" to me. I guess it comes somewhere between teineigo-level polite and casual in the politeness spectrum.


33

Everyone's done a great job of answering this one, so I'm just going to add a quick answer. The なの that you're asking about is really just の. The な is only there if you use it after a noun or a na-adjective (きれい, 大変, 非常). The most common way of using this の is as a question marker. そうなの - Is it really? This is the same as そうなんですか but less formal. ...


24

It is a contraction of です, but you will also hear (mostly younger guys) putting it (without the っ) on greetings. こんにちはす!こんばんはす!Here's a real example (written like it's spoken). っす Is not normal polite Japanese. Think of it as almost using a です when the situation is uncertain; for example, a group of young guys who've met fairly recently. です・ます are rather ...


21

なの relates to the ~のだ construction, and as such provides explanatory, secondary, or supporting information (which could be a reason, a cause, or other fact the speaker feels would aid in the listener's understanding). Note that the な is only used if the preceding word is a noun or な-adjective. Following a verb or い-adjective, only の is used: あの公園はとてもきれいなの。...


20

だ is the plain-form copula (the "is; to be" word). In the plain form, い adjectives already form a complete predicate (the piece of a sentence or clause that can complete that sentence or clause). In translation, it's like the い adjective already includes the "is" meaning -- so 速い would be "[it] is fast", not just "fast". Since だ is only used to provide a ...


17

Perhaps your teachers told you ~のだから (~んだから) is incorrect not because it is never used (you already know it's very common) but because you can't simply drop it into any sentence. While digging around on Google, I came across a very nice PDF published by the Japan Foundation which explains the use of ~のだから. You can read it on your own (it's even got yomigana!...


17

Yes, it can be used in a question, as long as the sentence also contains a question word: だれ, なに, どこ, etc. 誰だ? = Who's there? 何やってんだよ = What (the hell) are you doing? - (Note that よ can be added at the end) Both of your examples fit this pattern: どうして and どこ are the question words. Without a question word, you are much less likely to see this pattern, ...


15

Your collection of questions conflate a few things: 1) what is だ・です in modern Japanese, and 2) how did だ・です derive historically. Because of #2, #1 is a bit ... messy. :) So let's start with the history. 「です」は、「でございます」が変化したもの, This isn't an explanation of what です is now, so much as an explanation of the historical derivation. Shogakukan's 国語大辞典 ...


14

Let's start with something common: 夢は夢だ。 'Dreams are dreams.' Let's negate it (using ではない instead of its contracted form じゃない): 夢は夢ではない。 'Dreams are not dreams.' は is a 係助詞{かかりじょし} ("binding particle"). Any 係助詞 fits in this spot. しか is also a 係助詞: 夢は夢でしかない。'Dreams are nothing but dreams.' The "modern" grammatical analysis of this stuff is that で ...


13

When to drop "な" depends on the phrase. 客観的事実 is a very common set phrase, but 印象的事実 is not. You have to usually say "それは印象的な事実(でした)", unless you were a philosopher and ready to give 印象的事実 some definition. 的 is not special; there are several kanji which can connect two nouns and help to make longer compounds without hiragana particles. ~風 (~ style) ...


13

だ is not the plain form of です. They're related, but you can't use だ everywhere you can use です, so calling one the plain form of the other doesn't work. です has two functions: As a polite copula, similar to だ: りんごだ → りんごです (noun) きれいだ → きれいです (na-adj) As a politeness marker, following i-adjs: うつくしい → うつくしいです (i-adj) i-adjs form complete ...


13

Grammatically speaking, there really are no adjectives in Japanese. i-adjectives are just special verbs. i-adjectives have many of the same inflections as do verbs, and they fulfill a grammatical role essentially equivalent to that of verbs. Therefore, 電車は速い is a complete sentence meaning "the train is fast", where 速い is the predicate. i-adjective + です ...


13

This is because an i-adjective does not require だ (or its te-form で) in the first place. です at the end of a sentence like これは高いです is not a copula but a politeness marker which never conjugates. Why should I use つかれました and not つかれたです: Usually, です is a polite copula, similar to だ but more polite. But です can also be a politeness marker added to adjectives. ...


11

"It was Bucky that...", by comparison with 救出{きゅうしゅつ}した のは バッキーであった, is an easy trap to fall into, but I don't think it's right. The sentence こうしてバッキーは4人を救出した describes events from an objective global perspective, but the wording in the sentence in the question takes a small amount of time to reflect on Bucky himself as he existed at that point in time -- ...


11

This is not an answer but a collection of comments based on my personal feeling, but I post it as an answer because it is too long for a comment. First, here are two clear facts: のある simply does not have the same meaning as である. ピアニストのある私の姉 is incorrect. Replacing AであるB with AのB sometimes causes ambiguity. For example, ピアニストの姉 can mean either “(my) ...


11

Not all complements are direct objects. Let's look at each language, one by one: English I am Hana. Be is an intransitive copular verb, here in its form am. It takes Hana as a copular complement, but that complement is not a direct object. Instead, it's what is traditionally known as a "subject complement", sometimes called a "predicative complement" ...


11

ばかり【bakari】 is a 副助詞 (adverbial particle), which is derived from the 連用形 (-masu stem) of the verb はかる. But the particle (and 連用形 in general) behaves much like a noun. (Join to other noun-like words with の, make into a predicate by adding だ, etc.) Now you essentially have a noun phrase 食べたばかり. To make a sentence out of this, you have to add だ・です (or だった・でした ...


10

This actually most likely Oosaka-ben's variation of 「や」as「よ」, becoming something like: なんか買ってくれよ! The usage is explained in more detail here: http://www.weblio.jp/content/%E3%82%84?dictCode=OSAKA (Japanese) EDIT The original quote from the just in case site downtime happens: 「ある」が転じた「やる」の命令形「やれ」の略。言葉の終わりに付けることで、命令敬語や連用形命令語などをやわらげる働きがある。「よ」...


10

Following an い-adjective with です is perfectly acceptable, as in the following examples: あの人はひどいです。 昨日は楽しかったです。 I don't see any vulgar aspect to 美しいです failing contextual clues that could make nearly any description vulgar. Something that may be getting confused in all of this is that while the polite form of an い-adjective is followed by です -- e....


10

First, let me comment on your three examples: です ⇔ であります We discussed です before. According to 大辞林, there are several theories, but we don't know its etymology for sure. This is one of the three theories it lists, though. I've read that でございます may be more likely, but I never read an explanation why, so I won't make that assertion here. じゃない ⇔ ではない ...


9

You are misunderstanding where the difference is. 彼は映画スターであり、政治家もだ。 There are two は in this sentence: 彼は and 政治家は, but the latter is hidden behind も. You thus have the following: 彼は映画スターである and 政治家も映画スターである。 彼は映画スターであり、政治家でもある There is only one は in this sentence: 彼は, but there are two "である", the latter being augmented with a も. You thus have the ...


9

The と (to) of と思います works like the quotes in English. So the part before と must be a valid sentence. ○ 美しい   と思います × 美しい だ と思います (美しいだ is not a valid sentence) ○ 美しいんだ と思います (very strong feeling) ○ キレイだ と思います ○ キレイ  と思います


9

I think 好き was originally a noun derived from 好く, but then it came to be used as a na-adjective as well. In fact, most na-adjectives derive from nouns (and some people consider them to still be nouns). The following quote is from Origins of the Verbalizer Affixes in the Japonic Languages by Tyler Lau: Uehara (2003) provides a compelling argument for ...


9

I think there is a slight difference in what the uncertainty is about: … 六十五歳を過ぎ、<unsure>体力的な衰えを感じはじめた</unsure>だろう頃だ。 … <unsure>六十五歳を過ぎ、体力的な衰えを感じはじめた頃</unsure>だろう。 In #1, the uncertainty is less about the actual time frame, and more about what their physical condition had been. In #2, it seems that the uncertainty is ...


9

です is the polite form of is/am/are/be. It can also come after adjectives to make a sentence polite. ます is an ending attached to verbs, and functions to make the sentence polite. これは猫です。 This is a cat. 昨日は暑いです。 Today is hot. ケーキを食べます。 I eat cake. Note that in the second example although the translation contains the word is this is contained in ...


9

である is formal, but not polite であります is formal and polite, but not humble でございます is formal and polite and humble だ is informal, but not polite です is informal-* and polite *- compared to である A politician giving a speech on TV: 我々は日本国民である - We are Japanese citizens A lawyer speaking to a judge: (I think this usage is rare though...) この通りであります - ...


8

It's lazy polite form. Dropped for ease of use and to add a level of casual feel. Used nationwide. When I worked in bars and a few host clubs this style commonly used in place of normal 敬語 as it is too stiff for young women, who are the majority of our customers. However, we always reverted back to normal 敬語 when an older male, female(ママさん) or couple was ...


8

It's used for politeness. Here's what Martin writes in his 1975 Reference Grammar of Japanese, p.603: Sometimes the perfect is used more for politeness than for time reference: あなたはどなたでした = お名前は何とおっしゃいましたか ‘What did you say your name was?’ (when the person has actually not yet said); 判子をお持ちでしたね ‘You have your chop (= signature-seal) ...


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