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20

だ is the plain-form copula (the "is; to be" word). In the plain form, い adjectives already form a complete predicate (the piece of a sentence or clause that can complete that sentence or clause). In translation, it's like the い adjective already includes the "is" meaning -- so 速い would be "[it] is fast", not just "fast". Since だ is only used to provide a ...


15

Your collection of questions conflate a few things: 1) what is だ・です in modern Japanese, and 2) how did だ・です derive historically. Because of #2, #1 is a bit ... messy. :) So let's start with the history. 「です」は、「でございます」が変化したもの, This isn't an explanation of what です is now, so much as an explanation of the historical derivation. Shogakukan's 国語大辞典 ...


14

Let's start with something common: 夢は夢だ。 'Dreams are dreams.' Let's negate it (using ではない instead of its contracted form じゃない): 夢は夢ではない。 'Dreams are not dreams.' は is a 係助詞{かかりじょし} ("binding particle"). Any 係助詞 fits in this spot. しか is also a 係助詞: 夢は夢でしかない。'Dreams are nothing but dreams.' The "modern" grammatical analysis of this stuff is that で ...


14

When to drop "な" depends on the phrase. 客観的事実 is a very common set phrase, but 印象的事実 is not. You have to usually say "それは印象的な事実(でした)", unless you were a philosopher and ready to give 印象的事実 some definition. 的 is not special; there are several kanji which can connect two nouns and help to make longer compounds without hiragana particles. ~風 (~ style) ...


14

Grammatically speaking, there really are no adjectives in Japanese. i-adjectives are just special verbs. i-adjectives have many of the same inflections as do verbs, and they fulfill a grammatical role essentially equivalent to that of verbs. Therefore, 電車は速い is a complete sentence meaning "the train is fast", where 速い is the predicate. i-adjective + です ...


13

だ is not the plain form of です. They're related, but you can't use だ everywhere you can use です, so calling one the plain form of the other doesn't work. です has two functions: As a polite copula, similar to だ: りんごだ → りんごです (noun) きれいだ → きれいです (na-adj) As a politeness marker, following i-adjs: うつくしい → うつくしいです (i-adj) i-adjs form complete ...


13

This is because an i-adjective does not require だ (or its te-form で) in the first place. です at the end of a sentence like これは高いです is not a copula but a politeness marker which never conjugates. Why should I use つかれました and not つかれたです: Usually, です is a polite copula, similar to だ but more polite. But です can also be a politeness marker added to adjectives. ...


11

This is not an answer but a collection of comments based on my personal feeling, but I post it as an answer because it is too long for a comment. First, here are two clear facts: のある simply does not have the same meaning as である. ピアニストのある私の姉 is incorrect. Replacing AであるB with AのB sometimes causes ambiguity. For example, ピアニストの姉 can mean either “(my) ...


11

です is the polite form of is/am/are/be. It can also come after adjectives to make a sentence polite. ます is an ending attached to verbs, and functions to make the sentence polite. これは猫です。 This is a cat. 昨日は暑いです。 Today is hot. ケーキを食べます。 I eat cake. Note that in the second example although the translation contains the word is this is contained in ...


11

Not all complements are direct objects. Let's look at each language, one by one: English I am Hana. Be is an intransitive copular verb, here in its form am. It takes Hana as a copular complement, but that complement is not a direct object. Instead, it's what is traditionally known as a "subject complement", sometimes called a "predicative complement" ...


11

ばかり【bakari】 is a 副助詞 (adverbial particle), which is derived from the 連用形 (-masu stem) of the verb はかる. But the particle (and 連用形 in general) behaves much like a noun. (Join to other noun-like words with の, make into a predicate by adding だ, etc.) Now you essentially have a noun phrase 食べたばかり. To make a sentence out of this, you have to add だ・です (or だった・でした ...


10

First, let me comment on your three examples: です ⇔ であります We discussed です before. According to 大辞林, there are several theories, but we don't know its etymology for sure. This is one of the three theories it lists, though. I've read that でございます may be more likely, but I never read an explanation why, so I won't make that assertion here. じゃない ⇔ ではない ...


9

It's lazy polite form. Dropped for ease of use and to add a level of casual feel. Used nationwide. When I worked in bars and a few host clubs this style commonly used in place of normal 敬語 as it is too stiff for young women, who are the majority of our customers. However, we always reverted back to normal 敬語 when an older male, female(ママさん) or couple was ...


9

I think 好き was originally a noun derived from 好く, but then it came to be used as a na-adjective as well. In fact, most na-adjectives derive from nouns (and some people consider them to still be nouns). The following quote is from Origins of the Verbalizer Affixes in the Japonic Languages by Tyler Lau: Uehara (2003) provides a compelling argument for ...


9

I think there is a slight difference in what the uncertainty is about: … 六十五歳を過ぎ、<unsure>体力的な衰えを感じはじめた</unsure>だろう頃だ。 … <unsure>六十五歳を過ぎ、体力的な衰えを感じはじめた頃</unsure>だろう。 In #1, the uncertainty is less about the actual time frame, and more about what their physical condition had been. In #2, it seems that the uncertainty is ...


9

Another beginner answering here. ます is a (polite) verb ending. The verb to eat (食べる) for example can be conjugated to 食べます, which can be used in polite speech. です is a state of being, also to be used in polite conversations and can be roughly translated as a conjugated "to be". Example: 私はドイツ人です (I'm German)


9

である is formal, but not polite であります is formal and polite, but not humble でございます is formal and polite and humble だ is informal, but not polite です is informal-* and polite *- compared to である A politician giving a speech on TV: 我々は日本国民である - We are Japanese citizens A lawyer speaking to a judge: (I think this usage is rare though...) この通りであります - ...


8

It's used for politeness. Here's what Martin writes in his 1975 Reference Grammar of Japanese, p.603: Sometimes the perfect is used more for politeness than for time reference: あなたはどなたでした = お名前は何とおっしゃいましたか ‘What did you say your name was?’ (when the person has actually not yet said); 判子をお持ちでしたね ‘You have your chop (= signature-seal) ...


8

I think you have a few things mixed up. Let's start with んです. This is not just one thing. It's two: ん+です where ん is just short for the nominalizer の. Generally, this may be untranslatable when you try to bring it back into English. But, in Japanese it's serving to give some kind of explanation for why you did something, think something, or why ...


7

The も is required by the 誰. 誰も means "anybody". But things can come between the 誰 and the も. The case particles generally come before the も, e.g. 誰とも行かない (I will) not go with anybody In でもない, でない is a negative copula, but the で acts like a case particle and comes before the も. 誰でもない It isn't anybody In this example even more stuff comes before the も:...


7

I would like to add a clarification to user4092's answer: In English, present tense verbs are changed to past tense in reported speech. "My mum said it was fun" would mean that she said she had fun as the activity was going on. If this is what you meant, then the Japanese sentence below is the answer: English direct speech: My mum said, "This is fun!" ...


7

You can say/write (a bit less colloquially): ~~はXXする計画です。 ~~はXXする予定です。 ~~はXXする考えです。 to mean ~~はXXすることを計画しています。 ~~ is planning to do XX  ~~はXXすることを予定しています。 ~~ is planning/scheduled to do XX ~~はXXしようと考えています。/ するつもりです。 ~~ is thinking of doing XX / intend to do XX respectively.


7

探してもこの用法に関する解説がなかなか見つかりませんので私も今一つ確信が持てませんが、 この「が」は、逆説の接続助詞の「が」ではなく、主語を表す格助詞の「が」の用法の一つだと思っています。 そのため、名詞(体言)の後ろに来るのは当たり前といえます。 似たような表現に、 「鍵を閉めたはずが、実は開いていた」 「前は小さかったのが、いつの間にか大きくなっている」 「遊びのつもりが、つい本気になってしまった」 などがあります。 要するに、「XがYになった」「Xが実はYだった」などの表現の延長みたいなものかと思います。 この場合Xに当たるのは「ちょっと〇〇するだけのつもり」で、 Yに当たるのは「つい〇〇してしまうこと」になりますが、 最後の「~ことになった」を省略したことで今の形になったのではないでしょうか。...


7

「つもりが」の「が」は「私が」の「が」と同じ名詞につく格助詞であり、「きれいだが」のように動詞・形容詞につく接続助詞ではありません。なので「つもりが」は「つもりだが」とは違う意味を表します。 違うとは言っても、用法的には似たような意味になります(そもそもこの二つの「が」は語源的に関係しているので)。この意味の「~が」は、事前に想定していた内容を表す名詞句 (noun phrase) をとり、「X と思っていたのに(結果は/実際は) Y」と同様の意味を表します。そのため、形式名詞「つもり」「はず」を含め、予期、期待を表す言葉と一緒に使われやすい言い方です。 今日は休む予定が、急な仕事が入ってしまった。 大切にしまっておいたはずが、いつのまにかなくなっていた。 できないと思っていたのが、...


7

i-adjective + である is not grammatical for the same reason i-adjective + だ is not grammatical: i-adjectives already serve as a predicate without need for a copula (or in other words, you can imagine that the meaning “is”/“to be” is embedded in the i-adjective). i-adjective + です is grammatical, but the です here is not the usual copula, it is just a polite marker ...


7

日本はユーラシア大陸の東にある島国で国の70%は山です。 The で is the continuative form of the copula だ. Your translation looks good to me. You can split the sentence into two, like this: 日本はユーラシア大陸の東にある島国 だ/です。(そして)国の70%は山です。 "Japan is an island country located to the east of the Eurasian Continent. (And) 70% of the land is mountains."


6

だと!? at the end of a sentence, e.g. 何だと!? "say what!?" can indicate shock or disbelief, e.g. "you say there are three people there!?" Edit: The だと seems to have come from だって. According to Daijisen's last definition: [終助]《係助詞「だって」の文末用法から》引用句に付く。相手の言葉に対して、非難・驚きの気持ちを込めて強調する意を表す。 [final auxiliary] 《from the binding particle だって's end-of-sentence rules ...


6

I regret not writing "こわい。だから[...]" with a 句点 in my original comment. The precise way to express it would have been: if こわい and だから are parts of separate clauses, it can be grammatical, otherwise not. In speech, you would usually express こわい and だから belonging to different clauses by inserting a pause. With no pause between them (i.e. without breaking the ...


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