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20

だ is the plain-form copula (the "is; to be" word). In the plain form, い adjectives already form a complete predicate (the piece of a sentence or clause that can complete that sentence or clause). In translation, it's like the い adjective already includes the "is" meaning -- so 速い would be "[it] is fast", not just "fast". Since だ is only used to provide a ...


17

Perhaps your teachers told you ~のだから (~んだから) is incorrect not because it is never used (you already know it's very common) but because you can't simply drop it into any sentence. While digging around on Google, I came across a very nice PDF published by the Japan Foundation which explains the use of ~のだから. You can read it on your own (it's even got yomigana!...


17

Yes, it can be used in a question, as long as the sentence also contains a question word: だれ, なに, どこ, etc. 誰だ? = Who's there? 何やってんだよ = What (the hell) are you doing? - (Note that よ can be added at the end) Both of your examples fit this pattern: どうして and どこ are the question words. Without a question word, you are much less likely to see this pattern, ...


15

Your collection of questions conflate a few things: 1) what is だ・です in modern Japanese, and 2) how did だ・です derive historically. Because of #2, #1 is a bit ... messy. :) So let's start with the history. 「です」は、「でございます」が変化したもの, This isn't an explanation of what です is now, so much as an explanation of the historical derivation. Shogakukan's 国語大辞典 ...


14

Let's start with something common: 夢は夢だ。 'Dreams are dreams.' Let's negate it (using ではない instead of its contracted form じゃない): 夢は夢ではない。 'Dreams are not dreams.' は is a 係助詞{かかりじょし} ("binding particle"). Any 係助詞 fits in this spot. しか is also a 係助詞: 夢は夢でしかない。'Dreams are nothing but dreams.' The "modern" grammatical analysis of this stuff is that で ...


13

When to drop "な" depends on the phrase. 客観的事実 is a very common set phrase, but 印象的事実 is not. You have to usually say "それは印象的な事実(でした)", unless you were a philosopher and ready to give 印象的事実 some definition. 的 is not special; there are several kanji which can connect two nouns and help to make longer compounds without hiragana particles. ~風 (~ style) ...


13

だ is not the plain form of です. They're related, but you can't use だ everywhere you can use です, so calling one the plain form of the other doesn't work. です has two functions: As a polite copula, similar to だ: りんごだ → りんごです (noun) きれいだ → きれいです (na-adj) As a politeness marker, following i-adjs: うつくしい → うつくしいです (i-adj) i-adjs form complete ...


13

Grammatically speaking, there really are no adjectives in Japanese. i-adjectives are just special verbs. i-adjectives have many of the same inflections as do verbs, and they fulfill a grammatical role essentially equivalent to that of verbs. Therefore, 電車は速い is a complete sentence meaning "the train is fast", where 速い is the predicate. i-adjective + です ...


13

This is because an i-adjective does not require だ (or its te-form で) in the first place. です at the end of a sentence like これは高いです is not a copula but a politeness marker which never conjugates. Why should I use つかれました and not つかれたです: Usually, です is a polite copula, similar to だ but more polite. But です can also be a politeness marker added to adjectives. ...


11

"It was Bucky that...", by comparison with 救出{きゅうしゅつ}した のは バッキーであった, is an easy trap to fall into, but I don't think it's right. The sentence こうしてバッキーは4人を救出した describes events from an objective global perspective, but the wording in the sentence in the question takes a small amount of time to reflect on Bucky himself as he existed at that point in time -- ...


11

This is not an answer but a collection of comments based on my personal feeling, but I post it as an answer because it is too long for a comment. First, here are two clear facts: のある simply does not have the same meaning as である. ピアニストのある私の姉 is incorrect. Replacing AであるB with AのB sometimes causes ambiguity. For example, ピアニストの姉 can mean either “(my) ...


11

Not all complements are direct objects. Let's look at each language, one by one: English I am Hana. Be is an intransitive copular verb, here in its form am. It takes Hana as a copular complement, but that complement is not a direct object. Instead, it's what is traditionally known as a "subject complement", sometimes called a "predicative complement" ...


11

ばかり【bakari】 is a 副助詞 (adverbial particle), which is derived from the 連用形 (-masu stem) of the verb はかる. But the particle (and 連用形 in general) behaves much like a noun. (Join to other noun-like words with の, make into a predicate by adding だ, etc.) Now you essentially have a noun phrase 食べたばかり. To make a sentence out of this, you have to add だ・です (or だった・でした ...


10

Following an い-adjective with です is perfectly acceptable, as in the following examples: あの人はひどいです。 昨日は楽しかったです。 I don't see any vulgar aspect to 美しいです failing contextual clues that could make nearly any description vulgar. Something that may be getting confused in all of this is that while the polite form of an い-adjective is followed by です -- e....


10

First, let me comment on your three examples: です ⇔ であります We discussed です before. According to 大辞林, there are several theories, but we don't know its etymology for sure. This is one of the three theories it lists, though. I've read that でございます may be more likely, but I never read an explanation why, so I won't make that assertion here. じゃない ⇔ ではない ...


9

It's lazy polite form. Dropped for ease of use and to add a level of casual feel. Used nationwide. When I worked in bars and a few host clubs this style commonly used in place of normal 敬語 as it is too stiff for young women, who are the majority of our customers. However, we always reverted back to normal 敬語 when an older male, female(ママさん) or couple was ...


9

You are misunderstanding where the difference is. 彼は映画スターであり、政治家もだ。 There are two は in this sentence: 彼は and 政治家は, but the latter is hidden behind も. You thus have the following: 彼は映画スターである and 政治家も映画スターである。 彼は映画スターであり、政治家でもある There is only one は in this sentence: 彼は, but there are two "である", the latter being augmented with a も. You thus have the ...


9

I think 好き was originally a noun derived from 好く, but then it came to be used as a na-adjective as well. In fact, most na-adjectives derive from nouns (and some people consider them to still be nouns). The following quote is from Origins of the Verbalizer Affixes in the Japonic Languages by Tyler Lau: Uehara (2003) provides a compelling argument for ...


9

I think there is a slight difference in what the uncertainty is about: … 六十五歳を過ぎ、<unsure>体力的な衰えを感じはじめた</unsure>だろう頃だ。 … <unsure>六十五歳を過ぎ、体力的な衰えを感じはじめた頃</unsure>だろう。 In #1, the uncertainty is less about the actual time frame, and more about what their physical condition had been. In #2, it seems that the uncertainty is ...


9

です is the polite form of is/am/are/be. It can also come after adjectives to make a sentence polite. ます is an ending attached to verbs, and functions to make the sentence polite. これは猫です。 This is a cat. 昨日は暑いです。 Today is hot. ケーキを食べます。 I eat cake. Note that in the second example although the translation contains the word is this is contained in ...


9

である is formal, but not polite であります is formal and polite, but not humble でございます is formal and polite and humble だ is informal, but not polite です is informal-* and polite *- compared to である A politician giving a speech on TV: 我々は日本国民である - We are Japanese citizens A lawyer speaking to a judge: (I think this usage is rare though...) この通りであります - ...


8

It's used for politeness. Here's what Martin writes in his 1975 Reference Grammar of Japanese, p.603: Sometimes the perfect is used more for politeness than for time reference: あなたはどなたでした = お名前は何とおっしゃいましたか ‘What did you say your name was?’ (when the person has actually not yet said); 判子をお持ちでしたね ‘You have your chop (= signature-seal) ...


8

Another beginner answering here. ます is a (polite) verb ending. The verb to eat (食べる) for example can be conjugated to 食べます, which can be used in polite speech. です is a state of being, also to be used in polite conversations and can be roughly translated as a conjugated "to be". Example: 私はドイツ人です (I'm German)


8

I think you have a few things mixed up. Let's start with んです. This is not just one thing. It's two: ん+です where ん is just short for the nominalizer の. Generally, this may be untranslatable when you try to bring it back into English. But, in Japanese it's serving to give some kind of explanation for why you did something, think something, or why ...


7

The も is required by the 誰. 誰も means "anybody". But things can come between the 誰 and the も. The case particles generally come before the も, e.g. 誰とも行かない (I will) not go with anybody In でもない, でない is a negative copula, but the で acts like a case particle and comes before the も. 誰でもない It isn't anybody In this example even more stuff comes before the も:...


7

Well, since I have no examples to go off of, I'll guess at which type of scenario you're thinking of. It can mean like "But" or "Well (then)" in a kind of defensive sort of way. Usually giving a reason for some action. Like なぜかというと. Ex: お皿{さら}のものはみんな食{た}べなさい → Eat everything on your plate. だってお腹{なか}が一杯{いっぱい}なんだもん → But I'm full!


7

Err, I don't agree with your initial statement. I think that generally you are taught that い adjectives are followed by です. I think that it is never dangerous to say "美しいです" and that you should put a です all the time, until you reach enough confidence to know when you may drop it, and just say 美しい. However, い-adj + だ is basically just wrong. There are ...


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