18

Your "usual rule" is incomplete. It should be: drop -i if resulting is a single mora in length, add -sa add -sou. Hence, nai: na na + sa na + sa + sou --> nasasou. atui: atu (not applicable) atu + sou --> atusou.


15

In modern Japanese, instead of the conjugation [未然形]{みぜんけい}+[無]{な}い, another word is used to express the plain negative, namely 無い. This a process called suppletion, supplying a certain conjugational form with a different word. It exists in English as well. You don't say good and gooder, you talk about better, which comes from Proto-Indo-European *bhAd- ...


12

I wouldn't necessarily say 々 is used to avoid having to write the same kanji again, but rather to make it clear that the word is obtained by duplication of a character — moreover the reading should be doubled (with rendaku where applicable). For example, 日本国語大辞典 (via kotobank.jp) has のま【々】 (「々」が、かたかなの「ノ」と「マ」を組み合わせたように見えるところからの通称。「ノマ」とかたかなで表記する) ...


12

あそこ (expected あこ) There was an ako. From the 1775 text 物類称呼 (Iwanami Bunko ISBN4-00-302691-8 p. 146): あそこ こゝといふを 西國にて・あんなけ こんなけと云 肥前にて・そこねい こゝねいと云 尾州にて・あそこなて こゝなてと云 京にて・あこと云 However, there are ample usages of asoko in much earlier works from the 13th century and on, so this is likely an abbreviation of asoko > ako. Historically, in Old Japanese there ...


12

Teachers and intermediate language learners regularly tell beginners that Japanese has only two irregular verbs (来る and する). This is not, strictly speaking, true. Here are some others: 行く has the irregular forms 行った and 行って, as you've noted. ある has the negative form ない... which is quite irregular. Imperatives often seem to have irregular forms, most ...


7

Yes. For example, here are two places in Chiba: 酒々井 (しすい) 行々林 (おどろばやし) You could also make arguments for 神々廻 (ししば), too.


7

The historical answer to this still appears to be somewhat of a mystery. However, there is speculation on why the あ (of the こそあど) appears to be irregular. Nomichi Sumire gives a hint in this answer as to why あ is different. 「ここ・そこ・あそこ・どこ」 were all written in Kanji in the past, like this: 「此処・其処・彼処・何処」 When written out in Kanji, all of the words appear to ...


6

The reading 為る【する】 is not a reading contained in the jōyō kanji, which is yet another reason it is not commonly used. (You don't learn about it in school, you will have trouble publishing work with all instances of する replaced by 為る, etc.) The why has to be speculation, but to me it makes sense to drop the kanji for the second-most used verb in the language;...


6

They're both notable for the fact that in Classical Japanese they were part of a very small group of verbs to consist of a single kana: す and く (寝【ぬ】 is the only other one I've come across). As a result, the stem is a single consonant. As a result, when endings were added it was necessary to change the vowel within said single kana. When things were ...


5

To add to the previous answer, there is no clear-cut distinction between 'regular' and 'irregular'; also, irregularities can often be explained and may hint at an old form or conjugational system. Eg strong verbs in English and German (ablaut conjugation), be-was-is-am (merger of different verbs). As for ある, while *あらない is not used in modern Japanese, ...


5

It can only be 行った. I can't think of any situation where 行くった would be meaningful. The verb 行く is slightly irregular. Normally, for a verb ending in く you would replace the く with いた to form the past tense. e.g. 書く -> 書いた.


5

I don't have a clear answer for the ultimate derivations. Here is what I've found so far. General counting forms First, a note regarding the counter つ forms: all of the geminate (double-lettered, with the small っ) ones are later developments, probably as a simple phonotactic emphasizing of the つ. むっつ was originally むつ, which is 六【む】 + counter つ. The ...


4

する is "to do" and is essentially an auxiliary verb. Auxiliary words are generally not usually written in kanji. However, 来る can be a substantial verb meaning "to come" and is often written in kanji for this usage. When used as an auxiliary verb, though, it is usually written as くる and almost never as 来る.


4

To quote Toritoribe from JapaneseReference (JRef.com) forums: も was made from the 草書体[そうしょたい] of the kanji 毛[モウ, け]. So, the stroke order of も was also from the the stroke order of 毛. Incidentally, the stroke order is different in 楷書体[かいしょたい]. (The link of the wiktionary page doesn't work due to garbled characters. Please search 毛 on Wiktionary. ...


4

Here is how you derive the past tense for 行く (and the te-form, equivalently): past tense of /iku/ == { past tense of X = continuative form of X + /ta/ } /iki/ + /ta/ == { generating a new word requires sound-changes } repair(devoicing(/ikita/)) == { /i/ and /u/ become devoiced/disappear in-between two devoiced consonants } repair(/...


4

Yes, 行く/iku is an exception to the rule. Specifically, its -te/-ta form is itte/itta. However, in most ways this verb is regular, so it usually does not get included in the list of exceptions, which is only two verbs long: する/suru, and 来る/kuru. One other point of note is that 行く is sometimes pronounced "yuku," although this is slightly less common.


3

Well, in first place there are possible confusions depending you are referring to ない as a [助動詞]{じょどうし} or 無い as a [形容詞]{けいようし}. In the case of "It seems there is none", なさそう will be 無い adjective [連用形]{れんようけい} + そうだ [助動詞]{じょどうし}。 It seems that when そうだ was first introduced at Muromachi period, なそう was used but as な is only one syllable, さ was added through ...


3

The 未然形 isn't just し, there are せ (eg せん, せず, negation) and さ (eg させる, される). Actually if you look at 文語 the 未然形 was actually せ (and the 命令形 just せよ). Finally, if you consider that the 終止形 is す and that you can't form the potential (it is できる instead) while you can for the modern verbs coming from kami-nidan verbs... Probably too brief, but I hope it will ...


3

To my knowledge, this is historically shrouded in mystery, so there is no authoritative answer. (I'd be very interested in hearing one myself.) This page speculates (in, unfortunately, a very authoritative tone, yet with no citations...) that the negation of ある (あらない) did at one point exist, but was discarded for the antonym of ある (ない). (N.B., we do at ...


3

No subtleties, just grammar. First, 相関 stands for "correlation" as noun and "to correlate" as verb. Now, × 国民の平均身長は栄養状態と相関だ。 It's an ungrammatical sentence because Japanese postpositions can't modify noun by its own, contrary to English prepositions (but similarly to that of Latin & Romance languages). Grammatical ones are: (a) 国民の平均身長は栄養状態と相関的だ。 ...


3

You can interpret it as 『国民の栄養状態は平均身長と相関』だ but the 国民の栄養状態は平均身長と相関 part is still imcomplete sentence. Likewise, 「『Windows 10はRaspberry Piと対応』ですか?」 So, it's different from 相関している or 対応している.


2

Working in Japan I have never seen (or even heard) about the kanji version of する. Now that you mention it I would guess that the reason is practical. For one, you use する so much that it would be tedious to write out the kanji every time. Also, there are other words that sound like する like 擦る and 磨る and the non-kanji one is just a way to distinguish that ...


2

There are two separate idiomatic usages where 其の(その) followed by numerals. その 1 [counter]: one of them (= その中の 1 [counter]); it would hardly have a number bigger than 1. その一つ, その一人, その一回, そのワンフレーズ... その N: part N; since it is used to mark each division of a continuation, a bare number comes after it. そ‐の【其の】 4 全体をいくつかに分けた中の、ある部分をさす。「其の一、其の二」 It ...


2

As the comments start to get confusing I decided to answer this question. TL:DR; First, 貴方 is NOT 当て字 but 熟字訓。 When you see a word that doesn't fit any pronunciation of the 漢字 while without 振り仮名, it will be a result of 熟字訓。 ======================================================= Point!: 熟字訓 can be understood as means common words kunyomi。 They are ...


1

I don't know Kagoshima-ben at all, but I would be very surprised if ぬっか and げんなか had any relationship to the standard Japanese adjectives rather than just being different words, like うまい and おいしい. It seems obvious that "waika" derives from "warui," but it's hard to imagine a process that would transform "atsui -> nukii" or "kawaii -> muji". It's not a stem ...


1

It looks to me, if I understand your question correctly, as though you may be overthinking this. The basic rule is: The く ("adverbial") form of an い adjective followed by なる means "become [whatever the adjective means]" - although, of course, this is not always the best way to translate it. For example: 大きくなる become big, grow bigger 高くなる become ...


1

For some of the verbs with irregular respectful and/or humble forms, the corresponding regular forms are also used, e.g. お借りする, お食べになる, although they usually sound less formal. For some, most of which compose of two moras, that's not the case, e.g.: 行く ?お行きになる|いらっしゃる *お行きする|参る 来る *お来になる|いらっしゃる *お来する|参る 見る *お見になる|ご覧になる *お見する|拝見する 言う ?お言いになる|...


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