69

In modern Japanese these pairs are pronounced exactly the same: ず, づ are pronounced either [dzu] or [zu]. じ, ぢ are pronounced either [dʑi] or [ʑi]. (the first sounding like the English J and the second like the French J, but both are with the middle of the tongue raised to the hard palate, producing what seems like a softer pronunciation). So in short, ...


32

The Japanese equivalent of underlining for emphasis would probably be using 傍点【ぼうてん】 or 脇点【わきてん】: Dots added over (if writing horizontally) or to the right (if vertically) of each character. Wikipedia Japan has a page detailing their use, as well as their variants: 文字種としては、縦書きの場合は主に黒ゴマあるいは白ゴマが使用され、横書きの場合はビュレット(黒丸および白丸)が使用される。 ...


30

It's perfectly fine to use only half-width arabic numbers. 2009年6月30日 However, there are other rules in operation, coming from various time in the history of writing and printing: A. Don't use arabic numbers at all - maybe seen in formal documents: 二千九年六月三十日 B. Half-width for two-digit numbers, otherwise full-width - mostly in printed materials: ...


25

ローマ字 is ローマ plus 字【じ】. It's a noun+noun compound, just like 漢字【かんじ】 or アメリカ人【じん】. It is not the English adjective Roman plus 字, so there's no reason for an ン to be there. Writing romanji is a common beginner's mistake. There isn't really any linguistic significance to it, and you should avoid making this mistake yourself. The Japanese place name ローマ ...


25

This is a summary of this Wikipedia article. A math book called 塵劫記【じんこうき】 published in 1627, was the first book that described (and probably defined) how to count large numbers in Japanese. In the first edition of the book, actually there was no "4-digit grouping" as we know today, at least for relatively small numbers (smaller than 1 極【ごく】). A different ...


24

It's a glottal stop, similar to the usage you mentioned (あっ, もうっ). It signifies that the last mora is cut off abruptly. This can imply irritation (なんだよっ "What!") or excitement (大変だっ "It's terrible!"). In print, it's a little like adding an exclamation point to the end of the sentence.


24

Yes, mixtures of this type are possible, and it's quite common with certain words. For example, 石鹸 has a rather difficult second kanji, and the word is often written 石けん instead. 轟音 is often written ごう音. And so on. In your example, none of the characters is particularly rare and all of them are on the 常用漢字表 (the official jōyō kanji chart), so ...


22

ハ for the topic particle. There's no difference from hiragana.


20

What is the learning curve like for learning Japanese writing? About the same as English. Chances are you didn't start learning to read English by pedaling your five-speed Schwinn (with the baseball card in the back tire) to the local library and checking out Pride and Prejudice with your shiny new card. You had to start with the Easy Readers, wherein you ...


19

It seems that 歳 is the "official"character for the age, even though both it and 才 are reglementary (常用漢字). However, it is too difficult for the pupils (小学生) who are supposed to learn it since it's a very common word. Therefore, the different (but not simplified) character 才 is taught instead so that they can learn a necessary character until they see the "...


19

There's even an exceptional word which mixes hiragana, katakana, and kanji, くノ一. Generally speaking, words are written with mixed writing systems when there are reasons to write different parts in different ways. (Sounds obvious, huh?) For example, in Tokyo Nagoya's example of あんパン, the first morpheme comes from Chinese 餡{あん}, and the second from ...


19

They are both slightly different simplifications of the traditional Chinese character which is 變. 变 is the simplified Chinese and 変 the shinjitai, i.e. the Japanese simplification. Often the simplifications are the same, but it also often happens that traditional Chinese characters have slightly different simplifications in Chinese and Japanese, for ...


16

The basic answer is that は is written ハ in katakana. However, I think it depends on why it's written in katakana. One reason you might write something in katakana is to communicate pronunciation, and in this case the particle は would be written ワ: spelling pronunciation おはよう オハヨー こんにちは コンニチワ You can see this sort of use of ...


16

As in many other languages, Japanese has gone through a number of both major and minor pronunciation changes. English is certainly no exception, either. Why do English-speakers continue to spell words like "knight" and "daughter" as such when they no longer pronounce those words the way they are spelt? Japanese has experienced the same problem of ...


15

Some native feelings about the different spellings: かっこいい is neutral カッコイイ, カッコいい or anything with katakana looks like written by someone pretending to be young かっけえ is frequently heard from young people. When a high-school student writes this in school, it would be corrected to かっこいい 恰好いい looks sixty years old-fashioned.


15

There's a quick way to know this. The place where a space can be inserted is roughly the same place where ね can be naturally inserted. あらわれでたのはね、 くろマントにね、くろいね、ぼうしのね、さんにんぐみ。 それはそれはね、こわーいね、どろぼうさまのね、おでかけだ。 Actually this structure is known as 文節. Basically, a 文節 starts with a noun/adjective/verb/adverb/etc, optionally followed by one or more subsidiary ...


15

Japanese elementary school children are generally taught to write kanji like this (教科書体): I don't know how these are different from how Chinese kids are taught to write these characters. However, this largely depends on the font, and adults actually handwrite these dots in many ways according to their preference. Practically, there is no strict rule here, ...


14

Expanding on my comment, some word types that are likely to be written in kana which haven't been covered so far: Cases where one or more kanji in the compound are considered rare/difficult (for the level of the text). Examples: 石鹸【せっけん】, where 鹸 is the sticking point. This is commonly written せっけん or 石けん, or if the kanji are used furigana may be provided. ...


14

As you guessed, it depends on the type of writing and the target audience, and also on the style. In text written for general public, such as newspaper articles, foreign personal names are usually written in katakana. In academic books and papers, it is more common to see names in the Latin script (at least in mathematics and computer science). As for ...


14

Roman Jakobson famously said: "Languages differ essentially in what they must convey and not in what they may convey." His point was that every language can sufficiently convey any idea that can be expressed in another language. The difference is that for each language there are some properties that must be specified when an idea is conveyed, even though ...


14

Yes, it's common to write in that way. Writing いづみ instead of いずみ and 買ひ instead of 買い are a part of the Historical Kana Orthography (歴史的仮名遣). Writing katakana instead of hiragana is considered more formal in old days. See 歴史的仮名遣 and 片仮名 歴史的仮名遣とは ... 明治から第二次世界大戦終結直後までの公文書や学校教育において用いられたものであり、平安時代初期までの発音を反映した表記であると仮想されたものを基点としている。 The Historical Kana ...


13

Not per se. EDICT has "uk" (usually kana) and "uK" (usually kanji) annotations, but for the most part either is acceptable. 只今 ただいま (int,exp,uk,abbr,n-t,adv) Here I am; I'm home!; presently; right away; right now; just now; (P)


13

Heads up: Some of this is going to be a bit obscure. Wikipedia covers some of this ground; examples consisting of proper names, place names, etc. were checked via Japanese Wikipedia articles. ウィ、ウ、ウェ、ウォ Due to holes in the ワ column (including the general restriction of 「ヲ」 to grammatical duties), 「ウ」can pair with other vowels to replicate /w/ ...


13

Exclamation marks are one way (as in English), and often a っ before an exclamation mark can give the effect of increased volume. They can even be repeated or put into katakana for more emphasis. 黙れ! vs 黙れっ! vs 黙れッッ!! Japanese writing also seems to have less rigor in its literature-writing rules than English, so you can probably get away with repeating ...


12

I'm Japanese native speaker. In my opinion, little "っ" at the end of sentence is not pronounced at all. However, it often indicates "small" (not so serious) emotions of speaker, I'll show you some example, comparing with other two expressions for writing: 01. ふざけんなよっ 02. ふざけんなよ… 03. ふざけるなよ! (All sentences mean "Don't be silly") As you see, first sentence is ...


12

Searching on a name dictionary you'll get a long long list (93) of "midori" as a girl's given name. This excludes "midori" being used as a family name or a place name. "Midori" is not limited to the kanji for green though. It can be made up of other kanji having 名乗り (nanori - name reading) of "mi", "do", "ri", "mido", "dori" compounded to form "midori". ...


12

You can see it's ハ as what the old MS office assistant F1 said You can also see the usage of ヲ in the above sentence As a side note the text above isn't a translation of the English version Unfortunately F1 is the only one who talks in Katakana. Here are the other Japanese assistants and English assistants


12

If we want an authoritative source, we could look at the official terminology used by the Japanese government as set out by the Agency of Cultural Affairs (文化庁) (might be familiar name to some people as their page about 二重敬語 gets referenced here sometimes). They start by saying only to use kanji from 常用漢字表・付表 in the normal form of the character. They go on ...


12

The conventional Japanese tally follows the stroke order for 正. So if the total were 8, it'd look like [正下], and if it were 20, it'd be [正正正正] This link shows an animation for the stroke order: http://kakijun.jp/page/sei200.html


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