I'm working on some example questions from my grammar textbook. One of them I listed below:

 税金はこの表(  )計算されています。

 ア)につれて イ)に応じて ウ)に比べて エ)に基づいて

I'm unsure why 「に基づいて」is the only correct answer. What is the reason that 「に応じて」is inappropriate?

  • I would think によって would work too if it were one of the choices.
    – istrasci
    Jul 12, 2012 at 14:21
  • 1
    @istrasci Not quite. に基づいて means that the rate or some amount is given in the table, and the calculation is based on that. によって would most saliently mean tha the table is the tool by which the calculation is done, which does not make sense unless the table is something like an excel table with marco built in that can do the calculations.
    – user458
    Jul 12, 2012 at 15:26
  • @sawa: What about に沿って?
    – istrasci
    Jul 12, 2012 at 20:51
  • @istrasci に沿って is "in accordance with"
    – user458
    Jul 12, 2012 at 22:07
  • 1
    @istrasci: A common usage of に沿って is "川に沿って歩く": to walk along the river. There really is the "parallel" meaning in 沿う. English's "according" is cover too many interpretations. It makes sense in your sentence, but it is another meaning than 沿う that is retrospectively meant.
    – Axioplase
    Jul 13, 2012 at 1:55

3 Answers 3


に応じて means "in response to", "being adopted to", "proportional to (in the non-technical sense)", and does not fit the expected meaning. に基づいて means " based on", and fits the meaning.

  • Does either に応じて or に基づいて mean "in accordance with" or "according to"?
    – Chris
    Jul 12, 2012 at 14:25
  • @Chris The English expression "according to" is ambiguous. Unless you specify which sense, it does not make much sense.
    – user458
    Jul 12, 2012 at 15:27

I'm pretty much just saying what everyone else has already, but to add some examples etc...:

  • 基づく means "to be based on", so に基づいて means "based on":

    Taxes are calculated based on this [table/chart].

  • 応じる means "to respond", so に応じて means "in response to", "dependant on", "in accordance with" etc.

    Aに応じてB can have nuances of "B is done to the extent/degree of A"/"B in a way which caters to A" (examples from Tatoeba):

    You must live according to your income.

  • AにつれてB means "As A happens, so does B", for example:

    As these trees get larger, the light that shines on the lawn also diminishes.

  • 比べる means "to compare", so Aに比べてB means "compared with A, B" (this example from 浜島書店 Catch a Wave):

    Compared with people in their twenties, teenagers rarely go to the cinema.

  • Your rough translation of the sentence uses "based on" while Axioplase's uses "according to". Which is correct?
    – Chris
    Jul 12, 2012 at 14:21
  • @Chris I think (or the way I interpreted it anyway) is that Aに基づいて generally means "with A as a basis/foundation" and may imply that you made interpretations from the table similar to the English "based on". I think に応じて can often mean "according to" when "according to" can be replaced with "proportionate to" or "depending on" in English, but that it can't be used like "according to Jim, ..." etc (see also eow.alc.co.jp/search?q=%E3%81%AB%E5%BF%9C%E3%81%98%E3%81%A6 for some more examples)
    – cypher
    Jul 12, 2012 at 23:03
  • @Chris: I just felt that "according to" was more natural in English, and as Cypher said, it is not the same one as "According to Jim, …" which is "ジムさんによると" or something like that.
    – Axioplase
    Jul 13, 2012 at 1:51
  • につれて: used to express change along something else. "His fever cooled as hours passed."

  • に応じて: used to express a response or solution. "This helmet was designed to account for the increase number of head injuries among cyclists."

  • に比べて: used to compare. "Compared to Harry Potter, the Lord of the Rings is for children."

  • に基づいて: used to express foundations: "The prices are calculated according to this chart."

As you see, the choice is obvious! :)

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .