I was reading the "Dictionary of Japanese Grammar" series, and I found the way it uses the term formality vs. politeness contradictory and confusing, so I wanted some clarifications.
Here are some examples:
From the "Basic" volume, page 43:
From the "Advanced" volume, page 35:
In the "Basic" volume, だ is said to be informal, while です is said to be formal. On the other hand, the "Advanced" volume defines だ<->です as a plain<->polite pair, but they both are categorized as informal. To add to the confusion, there is this quote:
Which once again contradicts the chart from the first volume of the series. This is especially confusing, because in every resource that I have read (including the verb conjugation chart at the end of the "Basic" volume), the -ます form is the formal form of a verb.
And it never mentions how all of this fits into the 丁寧語・尊敬語・謙譲語 framework either.
So can anyone help me reconcile these contradictions? Also if possible, can anyone point me to a detailed resource on Japanese formality & politeness and how it fits into the 敬語 framework, preferably in English? I tried to look around, but all of them tends to be really shallow and contains few examples. I liked the in-depth style of DoJG explanations, but the contradictions above plus the fact that they completely excluded 敬語 left me wanting for more.