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I'm learning the days of the week and have seen them as 月曜日 and 月曜, but have also seen that they are sometimes just written as the first character (e.g. 月). Are there different instances when each are used? Or is there one way that's most common?

For example, when writing school work, when texting friends or coworkers etc.

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    月曜 is fine but you can't just say/write 月 to refer to 月曜日 unless where the context is sufficiently clear that you are talking about days in a week and such abbreviations are warranted like in diary.
    – Eddie Kal
    May 17 at 19:49
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In the midst of a sentence, you would mostly use 月曜日, or maybe 月曜 particularly in less formal contexts.

The main time you would see just the first character (e.g. 月) is in things calendars and opening hours, the same way you might see "Mon/Tue/Wed" written in English, where it is suitable to use an abbreviation and the context is absolutely clear that it is referring to a day of the week. You would almost never use it in spoken Japanese or in other written contexts.

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    I hear people use the abbreviated days all the time when they have to list a bunch. For example someone listing the days they have club activities might say げつ、か、もく、きん. It's cumbersome to say ~ようび if you're listing them.
    – Leebo
    May 18 at 3:49
  • You're right, actually, I should have included listing as one situation where you might use them, similar to 二三日 for "two or three days".
    – ConMan
    May 18 at 23:40

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