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接頭辞. A type of affix prepended to the beginning of a word to change its meaning.
仮名遣い. usage of kana, は vs. わ, 書く vs. かく etc.
助詞「な」. Used with adjectives that behave grammatically like nouns, or with verbs to indicate "do" (after verb stem) or "don't" (after dictionary form).
使用域（位相）. A variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
従属節. Clauses subordinate in form and unaffected by main clause phenomena such as topicalization.
送り仮名. Kana written after a kanji to complete the full reading of the word.
当て字. Kanji assigned to words based on their sound rather than their meaning.
連濁. A phonological phenomenon in Japanese by which the first consonant of the second component of a compound word often becomes voiced (k→g, s→z, t→d and h→b).
助詞「まで」. An adverbial particle indicating "to; till; as far as", or by extension indicating emphasis ("even").
品詞. The primary lexical categories such as nouns, verbs, and particles. In linguistics, often referred to as 'lexical class' or 'word class'.
書き言葉. Words and language generally used in writing rather than speech.
所有. Possessive constructions with ある 'be/exist', いる 'be/exist', する 'do', and the lexical verbs 持つ 'hold/have' and 所有する 'possess'. These are sometimes divided by linguists into alienable and inalienab…
助詞「でも」. Sometimes considered a single particle and listed as 係助詞 or 副助詞 in most dictionaries. This is derived from, but not the same as, the combination of either copular で or case particle で plus も.
女言葉. Words, phrases, or techniques that may be used predominantly by girls and women, or carry connotations of femininity.
長音. Vowels held for twice as long as short vowels. Unlike in English, long vowels in Japanese are not diphthongs. Long vowels in hiragana are generally written an extra kana such as あいうえお; in katak…
指示語. Questions regarding those words or particles that function similarly to the set of English adjectives and pronouns including "that", "these", "this", and "those".
促音化. Gemination happens when a spoken consonant is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a short consonant. Gemination is distinct from stress and may appear independently of it. In Jap…
助詞「より」. Used in comparisons as a reference point ("compared to", "more than"). It can be also used to mean "from" (equivalent to から).
上代日本語. A historical stage of Japanese which has the oldest attestation in documents currently known. Typically seen in 万葉集 (Man'yōshū; late 8c).
For the grammar and variants of Japanese words and phrases considered to be mainly used in casual speech or conversation.
分裂文. Sentences "clefted" into two parts. In Japanese, these commonly take the the form 〜のは〜だ or 〜のが〜だ, putting focus on the precopular constituent.