18

1) 「日本{にほん}へ手紙{てがみ}を送{おく}る」 2) 「手紙を日本へ送る」 Both are correct and grammatical. As far as pure grammar, neither is any "better" than the other. Japanese grammar is indeed more flexible than it seems to be taught outside of Japan (particularly at the beginning level). As long as the correct particles are attached to the right words, the word order can ...


16

「[僕]{ぼく}だけがいない[街]{まち}」 is completely grammatical and natural-sounding. If you thought, however, that this was a sentence, I am sure that you felt there was something wrong with it. That is not a sentence; It is only a noun phrase (a relative clause). It never was meant to mean "It was only I who was not in the town." Instead, it was meant to ...


13

「遅{おく}れちゃった、寝過{ねす}ごしたので。」 is a completely normal sentence in the real Japanese-speaking world. Japanese word order, phrase order and clause order are far more flexible than it appears to me that they are taught in Japanese-as-a-foreign-language. Thus, it is an everyday occurence for certain conjunctions to be located at the very end of the sentences. You ...


10

This と is a simple quotative-と, and this sentence is a typical example of a rhetoric device called 転置法 (hyperbaton) or 倒置法 (anastrophe). This is very common in Japanese poetry/slogans/lyrics because the grammatical role of a word is mainly expressed by the particle type rather than the word order. Does word order change the meaning of a sentence? ...


10

I think here あそびに means something like "for fun" or "for leisure". In other words, they came on a pleasure trip, not for business or studying. What may be confusing is that it's natural to express this in Japanese directly when you'd express it only indirectly in English. Phrases like "came to visit" or "went to see" ...


9

からかい上手の高木さん refers to Takagi-san as good at teasing. In this context, the からかい上手 is an adjective, which always come before the noun in Japanese, even where subordinate clauses would be used in English. If it were written the other way around, it would be talking about Takagi-san's skillful teasing (where teasing is the topic rather than Takagi-san). ...


8

As you suggested, "Fの復活" would be far more straightforward and simply means "The Return of F", but "復活のF" is not a typo, of course. In "復活のF", the main noun is "F", and 復活の is a phrase that modifies "F". Think of it as something like "F, The Resurrected" or "Returning F". Basically you can re-analyze this title as "復活するF" or "復活したF", as if the modifying ...


7

I can't comment yet on the site (reputation) but the Japanese addressing system goes from largest to smallest. I would change the order and use の but I'll defer to anyone else with more experience. 昨年に茨城県の大洗町に行きました。


7

やっぱり has several meanings, such as: やっぱり、思った通りだ。 -- It is so, just as I thought/expected/suspected. -> That's exactly what I thought. / I knew it. やっぱり、こっちにします。 -- On second thought, / I changed my mind, I'll pick this one. それでも / なんだかんだ言っても、やっぱり嬉しいです。 -- But I'm happy, nonetheless / all the same / after all. Here in your sentence, I ...


7

訳が分からない (or 訳が分からん, わけわからん, etc) is an extremely common set phrase meaning "nonsensical", "puzzling", "garbled", etc. 訳が分からないこと or 訳の分からないこと as a whole means "gibberish", "rubbish", etc. (解る is another way of writing 分かる in novels and such.) 言わないでくれ is "(please) don't say ~". I believe you know te-form + くれ is a way of making a request. Naturally, ~ないでくれ is ...


6

遊びに来る just means 'come to visit' or 'come to see someone'. It's a common phrase. Don't be too focused on 遊ぶ, it doesn't really mean 'play' or 'hang out' per se. I would translate it as: "I showed my friend, who came to visit from Japan, around London." or some variation of that.


6

僕はE缶だけは最後までとっておく means: I'll spare at least E-Tanks until the last moment. I will use anything but E-Tanks before the last moment. This だけ refers to E-Tanks, not "at the last moment" part. とっておく means "to spare / keep", not "to take / bring". To be clear, he's not saying he's going to throw away items other than E-Tanks. Obviously it doesn't make ...


6

Word order is less important in Japanese than in English, because Japanese uses particles (が, は, を, etc) to indicate the role of each word in a sentence. This makes Japanese very flexible in terms of word order: Does word order change the meaning of a sentence? There is an "ordinary" word order ("subject-object-verb" or SOV), which you have to respect when ...


6

Most commonly and naturally, it should be: 「今日本{いまにほん}は何時{なんじ}ですか。」 You located 「今」 correctly, but used the wrong particle 「に」. A comma after the 「今」 is optional. Also common would be: 「日本は今何時ですか。」 Finally, you can only start a sentence with 「今日本に」 when it is followed by a verb describing a stative action as in: ・「今日本にいます。」 ("I am in Japan now.") ...


6

The dictionaries I have use the following order. (From the publishers 小学館, 三省堂 and 学研.) The usual lexicographic order by gojūon, mostly ignoring whether a kana has (han)dakuten or is a small kana. (Recall the gojūon order means あいうえお かきくけこ さしすせそ たちつてと なにぬねの はひふへほ まみむめも やゆよ らりるれろ わ. You can reconstruct this by memorizing あいうえお and あかさたなはまやらわ. Also see What ...


6

[彼女]{かのじょ}は[結構]{けっこう}めがねが[似合]{にあ}うね。 [彼女]{かのじょ}はめがねが[結構]{けっこう}[似合]{にあ}うね。 Both are correct and natural. [結構]{けっこう} is an adverb here, and modifies the verb 似合う. Japanese word order is far more flexible than that of English. You could also rephrase the sentence as: [結構]{けっこう}[彼女]{かのじょ}はめがねが[似合]{にあ}うね。 Related: Word order and emphasis with たくさん


5

「など」means like "etc." or "and so on". Here, 車 isn't necessarily "cars", but "vehicles". So overall, it means "There was an accident involving 12 vehicles (trucks included)." Or you could more easily say "A 12-car pileup"; in this case—even in English—you would know that "12-car" is not just limited to actual "cars", but vehicles.


5

Yes, both share the same meaning, though sentence 2 sounds a little unreal (may be it could be possible in a poem or lyrics). There is a word in linguistics called a "syntax marker". Japanese marks a sentence's syntax or structure using particles. Russian does so using word declensions. For languages with neither particles nor declensions, like English and ...


5

Typically, you state it in the order that is normal for your language. Koreans and Chinese say their family name first, Americans say it last. Japanese people are well aware of that language difference, so they expect us to keep our names in the original order. They also use the original order when saying foreign names themselves. The only times I put my ...


5

魚が好きな人。 It's not a sentence, there is no predicate. It's a noun phrase meaning "a person who likes fish", or if the general subject where this expression appeared is a comparison between different animal species (including human) "fish-liking human(kind)". 人は魚が好きだ。 This on the other hand is a full sentence. "Human(kind) like fish".


5

Consecutive vs. Simultaneous 「水野{みずの}は太{ふと}って、背{せ}が低{ひく}くて、音楽{おんがく}を聞{き}いて、帽子{ぼうし}を被{かぶ}っています。」 「水野は太って、音楽を聞いています。背が低くて、帽子を被っています。」 (This may be too advanced, but we would write 「音楽を聴{き}く」 instead of 「音楽を聞く」. Same goes for 見る vs. 観る) Where to start? I guess I would with 「太って」, because I honestly do not feel from your question that you are aware that it ...


5

あなたはあの人の家に行くことはいつですか I would say it as 「あなたがあの人の家に行くのはいつですか。」 This sounds like "When is it that you're going to that person's house?" rather than "When are you going to that person's house?" あなたはいつあの人の家にいくんですか いつあなたはあの人の家に行くんですか Both sound fine to me, and their fundamental meanings are the same (though they might have different nuances or focuses). ...


5

remon wo watashi wa tabeta This can be translated 2 ways: 1) A lemon I ate No it cannot be translated as “a lemon I ate”. Particle wo indicates a direct object of the verb tabeta, and word order does not change that. The phrase “A lemon I ate” in Japanese is “watashi ga tabeta remon”. However, it also can be translated as: 2) I ate a ...


5

I believe this a case of a so called "dislocation" which happens in speech (or a writing that imitates speech) - grammar of a sentence (寝過ごしたので遅れちゃった) is broken in the way that the latter part is said first (it's what's on the speaker's mind) and the rest is added for more information/clarification, often as an afterthought ... resulting in the sentence you ...


5

What you actually stumble over is this expression: シベリアより東の地域 region(s) to the east of Siberia Here シベリアより東(だ) is a noun predicate that modifies 地域, and this より has nothing to do with the rest of the sentence. ~より東 (lit. "more east than"?) may be a strange wording to European languages speakers, but it's a sound phrase in Japanese to describe what's at ...


5

In the usual sense, no. There isn't any way qualifying a phrase from behind in the Japanese grammar. I remember I've answered a similar question long ago (Rendering an appositive “which” clause in Japanese). Workarounds exist, though there wouldn't be finite ways to cover all cases. 女性の上半身、死体のように赤黒い肌をしたそれが、巨大なクモの胴の上に鎮座している。 It separates the first noun ...


5

わたしたちは、量が十分でかつきれいな水を必要としている。 We need water that is both sufficient in quantity and clean. 十分で水 is ungrammatical for obvious reasons. I believe you already know how to join two na-adjectives using で, so please learn how to use かつ to emphasize the meaning of "and". You can rephrase this as きれいでかつ量が十分な水. See how で and な have been swapped. In case you have ...


5

First, as a basic rule, the polite copula です must be preceded by a (pro)noun or an adjective (eg 犬です, 元気です). お名前はですか is plain ungrammatical because です is directly preceded by the topic marker は. How about 何があなたのお名前ですか? This is actually grammatical, but almost always nonsensical, because this uses exhaustive-listing-ga and thus sounds like "What is the one ...


4

I can't figure out if my question should be このぼうしは だれの ですか。OR だれの このぼうし ですか。 The first one is correct, because... The genitive case particle の works like the English 's or of, as in: わたしのぼうし my hat あなたのぼうし your hat たけしさんのぼうし Takeshi-san's hat だれのぼうし whose hat わたしのこのぼうし this hat of mine (lit. my this hat) の can also be used for (someone)'s (...


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