18

1) 「日本{にほん}へ手紙{てがみ}を送{おく}る」 2) 「手紙を日本へ送る」 Both are correct and grammatical. As far as pure grammar, neither is any "better" than the other. Japanese grammar is indeed more flexible than it seems to be taught outside of Japan (particularly at the beginning level). As long as the correct particles are attached to the right words, the word order can ...


16

「[僕]{ぼく}だけがいない[街]{まち}」 is completely grammatical and natural-sounding. If you thought, however, that this was a sentence, I am sure that you felt there was something wrong with it. That is not a sentence; It is only a noun phrase (a relative clause). It never was meant to mean "It was only I who was not in the town." Instead, it was meant to mean "The ...


13

「遅{おく}れちゃった、寝過{ねす}ごしたので。」 is a completely normal sentence in the real Japanese-speaking world. Japanese word order, phrase order and clause order are far more flexible than it appears to me that they are taught in Japanese-as-a-foreign-language. Thus, it is an everyday occurence for certain conjunctions to be located at the very end of the sentences. You ...


10

I think here あそびに means something like "for fun" or "for leisure". In other words, they came on a pleasure trip, not for business or studying. What may be confusing is that it's natural to express this in Japanese directly when you'd express it only indirectly in English. Phrases like "came to visit" or "went to see" generally imply that it's for pleasure ...


10

Anastrophe exists in Japanese: Usual order: 前の彼女が放火、殺人、信号無視の罪で終身刑になったと知って安心した。 Anastrophe: 前の彼女が終身刑になったと知って安心した。放火、殺人、信号無視の罪で。 (Note about the word 終身刑: Strictly speaking, 終身刑 means life imprisonment without parole, and the usual life imprisonment with a possibility of parole is technically called 無期刑. However, in nontechnical context, 終身刑 often means ...


9

からかい上手の高木さん refers to Takagi-san as good at teasing. In this context, the からかい上手 is an adjective, which always come before the noun in Japanese, even where subordinate clauses would be used in English. If it were written the other way around, it would be talking about Takagi-san's skillful teasing (where teasing is the topic rather than Takagi-san). ...


9

As you suggested, "Fの復活" would be far more straightforward and simply means "The Return of F", but "復活のF" is not a typo, of course. In "復活のF", the main noun is "F", and 復活の is a phrase that modifies "F". Think of it as something like "F, The Resurrected" or "Returning F". Basically you can re-analyze this title as "復活するF" or "復活したF", as if the modifying ...


8

This と is a simple quotative-と, and this sentence is a typical example of a rhetoric device called 転置法 (hyperbaton) or 倒置法 (anastrophe). This is very common in Japanese poetry/slogans/lyrics because the grammatical role of a word is mainly expressed by the particle type rather than the word order. Does word order change the meaning of a sentence? ...


7

やっぱり has several meanings, such as: やっぱり、思った通りだ。 -- It is so, just as I thought/expected/suspected. -> That's exactly what I thought. / I knew it. やっぱり、こっちにします。 -- On second thought, / I changed my mind, I'll pick this one. それでも / なんだかんだ言っても、やっぱり嬉しいです。 -- But I'm happy, nonetheless / all the same / after all. Here in your sentence, I ...


7

I can't comment yet on the site (reputation) but the Japanese addressing system goes from largest to smallest. I would change the order and use の but I'll defer to anyone else with more experience. 昨年に茨城県の大洗町に行きました。


7

It's not completely clear from your question whether the problem asks for "any grammatical order" or "the most natural order". While your answer is grammatically correct, the "correct answer" is more natural, and I'll try to explain why. While "annoying" is one translation of 迷惑, often a more fitting translation is "inconsiderate". Although I have seen the ...


7

訳が分からない (or 訳が分からん, わけわからん, etc) is an extremely common set phrase meaning "nonsensical", "puzzling", "garbled", etc. 訳が分からないこと or 訳の分からないこと as a whole means "gibberish", "rubbish", etc. (解る is another way of writing 分かる in novels and such.) 言わないでくれ is "(please) don't say ~". I believe you know te-form + くれ is a way of making a request. Naturally, ~ないでくれ is ...


6

遊びに来る just means 'come to visit' or 'come to see someone'. It's a common phrase. Don't be too focused on 遊ぶ, it doesn't really mean 'play' or 'hang out' per se. I would translate it as: "I showed my friend, who came to visit from Japan, around London." or some variation of that.


6

The dictionaries I have use the following order. (From the publishers 小学館, 三省堂 and 学研.) The usual lexicographic order by gojūon, mostly ignoring whether a kana has (han)dakuten or is a small kana. (Recall the gojūon order means あいうえお かきくけこ さしすせそ たちつてと なにぬねの はひふへほ まみむめも やゆよ らりるれろ わ. You can reconstruct this by memorizing あいうえお and あかさたなはまやらわ. Also see What ...


5

「など」means like "etc." or "and so on". Here, 車 isn't necessarily "cars", but "vehicles". So overall, it means "There was an accident involving 12 vehicles (trucks included)." Or you could more easily say "A 12-car pileup"; in this case—even in English—you would know that "12-car" is not just limited to actual "cars", but vehicles.


5

Yes, both share the same meaning, though sentence 2 sounds a little unreal (may be it could be possible in a poem or lyrics). There is a word in linguistics called a "syntax marker". Japanese marks a sentence's syntax or structure using particles. Russian does so using word declensions. For languages with neither particles nor declensions, like English and ...


5

魚が好きな人。 It's not a sentence, there is no predicate. It's a noun phrase meaning "a person who likes fish", or if the general subject where this expression appeared is a comparison between different animal species (including human) "fish-liking human(kind)". 人は魚が好きだ。 This on the other hand is a full sentence. "Human(kind) like fish".


5

Consecutive vs. Simultaneous 「水野{みずの}は太{ふと}って、背{せ}が低{ひく}くて、音楽{おんがく}を聞{き}いて、帽子{ぼうし}を被{かぶ}っています。」 「水野は太って、音楽を聞いています。背が低くて、帽子を被っています。」 (This may be too advanced, but we would write 「音楽を聴{き}く」 instead of 「音楽を聞く」. Same goes for 見る vs. 観る) Where to start? I guess I would with 「太って」, because I honestly do not feel from your question that you are aware ...


5

あなたはあの人の家に行くことはいつですか I would say it as 「あなたがあの人の家に行くのはいつですか。」 This sounds like "When is it that you're going to that person's house?" rather than "When are you going to that person's house?" あなたはいつあの人の家にいくんですか いつあなたはあの人の家に行くんですか Both sound fine to me, and their fundamental meanings are the same (though they might have different nuances or focuses). ...


5

remon wo watashi wa tabeta This can be translated 2 ways: 1) A lemon I ate No it cannot be translated as “a lemon I ate”. Particle wo indicates a direct object of the verb tabeta, and word order does not change that. The phrase “A lemon I ate” in Japanese is “watashi ga tabeta remon”. However, it also can be translated as: 2) I ate a ...


5

Word order is less important in Japanese than in English, because Japanese uses particles (が, は, を, etc) to indicate the role of each word in a sentence. This makes Japanese very flexible in terms of word order: Does word order change the meaning of a sentence? There is an "ordinary" word order ("subject-object-verb" or SOV), which you have to respect when ...


5

Most commonly and naturally, it should be: 「今日本{いまにほん}は何時{なんじ}ですか。」 You located 「今」 correctly, but used the wrong particle 「に」. A comma after the 「今」 is optional. Also common would be: 「日本は今何時ですか。」 Finally, you can only start a sentence with 「今日本に」 when it is followed by a verb describing a stative action as in: ・「今日本にいます。」 ("I am in Japan now.") ...


5

I believe this a case of a so called "dislocation" which happens in speech (or a writing that imitates speech) - grammar of a sentence (寝過ごしたので遅れちゃった) is broken in the way that the latter part is said first (it's what's on the speaker's mind) and the rest is added for more information/clarification, often as an afterthought ... resulting in the sentence you ...


5

What you actually stumble over is this expression: シベリアより東の地域 region(s) to the east of Siberia Here シベリアより東(だ) is a noun predicate that modifies 地域, and this より has nothing to do with the rest of the sentence. ~より東 (lit. "more east than"?) may be a strange wording to European languages speakers, but it's a sound phrase in Japanese to describe what's at ...


5

In the usual sense, no. There isn't any way qualifying a phrase from behind in the Japanese grammar. I remember I've answered a similar question long ago (Rendering an appositive “which” clause in Japanese). Workarounds exist, though there wouldn't be finite ways to cover all cases. 女性の上半身、死体のように赤黒い肌をしたそれが、巨大なクモの胴の上に鎮座している。 It separates the first noun ...


5

わたしたちは、量が十分でかつきれいな水を必要としている。 We need water that is both sufficient in quantity and clean. 十分で水 is ungrammatical for obvious reasons. I believe you already know how to join two na-adjectives using で, so please learn how to use かつ to emphasize the meaning of "and". You can rephrase this as きれいでかつ量が十分な水. See how で and な have been swapped. In case you have ...


4

I think the emphasis is on the part with closest proximity to the main verb for the Japanese sentences. As noted by Chocolate's comment: スミスさんは かいしゃのひとと おおさかししゃに あした いきます has an emphasis on あした. スミスさんは ひとりで おおさかししゃに きのう いきました has an emphasis on きのう. I think there are differences with English as well. The first sentence you provided seems neutral,...


4

I can't figure out if my question should be このぼうしは だれの ですか。OR だれの このぼうし ですか。 The first one is correct, because... The genitive case particle の works like the English 's or of, as in: わたしのぼうし my hat あなたのぼうし your hat たけしさんのぼうし Takeshi-san's hat だれのぼうし whose hat わたしのこのぼうし this hat of mine (lit. my this hat) の can also be used for (someone)'s (...


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