16

The (よ)う in ~(よ)うとする is volitional. ~(よ)うとする means "try to do ~~" "be about to do ~~", and is attached to the 未然形 (imperfective form) of verbs, as in 「[走]{はし}ろ+うとする」「[歩]{ある}こ+うとする」「[見]{み}+ようとする」etc. 私は母を手伝おうとしました。 I tried to help my mother. 日が沈もうとしています。 The sun is about to set. 出かけようとすると、雨が降ってきました。 When I was about to go out, it started to ...


14

Yes it's a sentence-ending particle which is usually used in monologues. One article says the main function of this っと is to casually convince/confirm something to the speaker themselves. Perhaps it's like saying 'okay' to yourself. これで良しっと。 今日も1日お疲れさまでしたっと。 (before going to bed, to oneself) Occasionally it's used when there's an actual listener. ...


14

Here is how I would categorize these usages. There are probably other ways to explain them, and I do not claim that mine is the best in any sense. (1) ~ようと思う, ~ようと考える, and ~ようと決める are just the usual use of the particle と which signifies quotation, and there is nothing special about the combination of a volitional and と. For example, I think that particle ...


12

You should parse it this way: 近所のひとに『カラオケに行こう』と誘われました。 (lit.) I was invited by my neighbor, (saying) "Let's go to Karaoke." ⇒ My neighbor invited me out to Karaoke. / suggested we go to Karaoke. I usually would just use plain form いく. You could rephrase the sentence as: 近所のひとにカラオケに誘われました。 I was invited to Karaoke by my neighbor. ⇒ My neighbor ...


11

According to 明鏡国語辞典, the が is a conjunctive particle (接続助詞), and it expresses 逆接の仮定条件 (contradictory hypothetical condition? "even if~"/"no matter~~") when attached to the volitional auxiliaries 「う・よう」「まい」. Examples: 人が何と言おうが、私はやる。(言おうと(も)) No matter what others may say, I'll do it. 私がどこに行こうが、君には関係ない。 (行こうと(も)) No matter where I go, it's ...


10

「何, どこ, だれ, いつ etc. + ~~(よ)うが」 「何, どこ, だれ, いつ etc. + ~~(よ)うと(も)」 「何, どこ, だれ, いつ etc. + ~~ても」 mean "No matter what, where, who, etc. ~~". For example: 何を言おうが / 何を言おうと(も) / 何を言っても (No matter what ~~ say, ...) どこに行こうが / どこに行こうと(も) / どこに行っても (No matter where ~~ go, ...) 何があろうが / 何があろうと(も) / 何があっても (No matter what happens, ...) 何を頼まれようが / 何を頼まれようと(...


10

This is an instance of the pattern VようにもBない 作ろう is what is often called the "volitional form" in English. The root verb is 作る [to make]. にも expresses "even though" and when joined to the volitional form makes a conditional "even if you wanted to V". Here, it means "even if you wanted to make some thing [to eat]" 材料 = ingredients in this context も何もない = ...


10

For reference, the full sentence is from page 153 of the textbook 上級へのとびら, and reads: その上、日本のマンガは欧米人の本の読み方さえ変えようとしている。 Grammar I am used to that grammar construction meaning either "about to do something" or "try to do something," neither of which work in this context. While ようとする can mean to be about to do something, as in (1)... (1)...


9

The form with -ō isn't just for intentions (the intentional mood). It's also for invitations, i.e. an encouragement to do something together (the cohortative mood, like English "let's"). To understand the sentence, first we have to consider that the clause before と is a quotative argument. Xと誘われました means "I was invited to 'X'", where I put quotes around '...


8

I think you could say something like this:   出かけないでおこう     (plain)   出かけないでおきましょう  (polite) Since your example includes 出かけません, I assume you want the polite version.


7

You could also say it in the sense of "let's give up on going out". 天気が悪いので、出かけるのをやめよう(かな)。


7

It's definition ⑦ in 大辞林, under 助動詞「よう」: ⑦ (「ようとする」の形で)それが実現する直前であることを表す。 「家を出ようとするところに,電話がかかってきた」 「助成金がうち切られようとしている」 The key word here is 直前. In your example, その力に飲み込まれる is something that's about to happen. This meaning of 〜(よ)うとする is distinct from the volitional meaning you describe. How do you know which one works? Well, I hope it's clear that ...


6

〔一段活用・二段活用の動詞に推量の助動詞「む」を伴ったもの,例えば,「見む」「受けむ」などは,中世末期までに「みう」「うけう」から「みょう」「うきょう」の形に変‌​化していたが,そこから,動詞未然形「み」「うけ」と助動詞「よう」とが分かれて,助動詞「よう」が生ずるに至った。現代語のように,五段活用の動詞には「う」が,その他の‌​活用の動詞には「よう」が付くというように,接続のしかたを補い合うような用法が一般的になるのは近世江戸語以降のことである〕 ― 大辞林 entry for よう Combinations of monograde (一段) and bigrade (二段) verbs with the conjecture auxiliary -mu, for example mi-mu ...


6

時には自分を疑います would mean something like "From time to time, we find that we doubt ourselves". The intended meaning here, I think, is that we should doubt ourselves. Something like 時には自分を疑おう At times we should doubt ourselves which comes from "let's doubt ourselves from time to time", but "let's" sounds kind of strange in English. You've told us nothing ...


6

The first が is not a subject particle. In combination with 「...う」 and/or 「まい」, it means "no matter", or "regardless of". Here is an excerpt from スーパー大辞林{だいじりん}: (4)どんな事柄{ことがら}でもかまわない,の意{い}を表{あらわ}す。「…うが」「…まいが」の形{かたち}をとる。「どうなろう―知{し}ったことではない」「行{い}こう―行{い}くまい―,君{きみ}の勝手{かって}だ」 The first example can be translated to: "No matter how it becomes, I do not give a ...


6

This form is classified as modern 口語 (as opposed to 文語), but it sounds old-fashioned nevertheless. It's not something we hear every day. We mostly see this form in fictional old person's speech (like in the original question) or in a few fixed expressions like 安かろう悪かろう. よかろう is often used by a pompous, old and/or noble person in fiction. If someone around ...


6

才能があろうがなかろうが - Whether there is talent or not, - Whether I'm talented or not, This is a phrase using the volitional to express a lack of relation. As for the theme, I found a very simple and easy explanation here on the Internet, so I quoted it as it is including examples with some editing. Basically, we can use both volitional and negative ...


6

He's using the volitional form of 焼く which is 焼こう. The volitional form is used to indicate "will" in the general sense and when used in independent clauses, often is translated to "Let's do [something]". A perhaps more accurate translation of what the blob is saying would have been, "Let's burn the pictures." You can learn more about it from Tae Kim's guide ...


5

"~ことを" itself is not that idiomatic, but I think "~があらんことを" is idiomatic. 神のご加護があらんことを: This sounds natural to me. You can safely say "Xがあらんことを" is an archaic-sounding idiomatic phrase which means "I wish you X" or "May there be X". This is a fixed pattern used mainly by priests, and I have never wondered what is omitted after it. I think those who don't go ...


5

Construction and meaning You might have already encountered the positive volitional + と: this indicates something that the subject is trying to do, such as 店{みせ}に行{い}こうとする: to try to go to the store. The final verb is what is happening, and the volitional verb before it is a kind of dependent hoped-for result: "suru so as to iku to the store". The ...


5

There is no relation here. It is simply 何機も followed by the form 〜(よ)うとする. The 何機も corresponds to the combat planes because planes are counted with 機. The 何 + counter + も pattern just means "several" or an undetermined amount of that thing. For example 食堂に生徒が何人もいます → There are several / There are a number of students in the cafeteria. So your ...


5

The auxiliary verb う/よう denotes the subject's will in a broad sense, and you don't have to use "try" in a case like this. I think "He won't/wouldn't even look up from his newspaper" is enough. You can see other example sentences in these dictionaries: ALC Weblio


5

The sentence is invalid. That 限り shouldn't be there. Remove it and the sentence becomes grammatical: どんなに抵抗しようとも生きている人はいつかは死ぬ。(However much they may resist, living humans must eventually die.) Or, if 限り should be used at all, it ought to be placed after 生きている. どんなに抵抗しようとも生きている限り人はいつかは死ぬ。(However much they may resist, as long as they are alive humans ...


5

This と is the quotative-と. volition/inference + と can be used without any explicit following verb, and it means "thinking ...", "trying ...", "hoping ..." or such. だろう is part of the "quote." 今度はわかってくれるだろうと =「今度はわかってくれるだろう」と思って = ..., thinking/hoping (adults) will understand (the picture) this time, ... Similar questions: Volitional + と in ...


5

よし子供はそろそろ寝ようかー 歯磨きしてこよう こよう as far as I know is volitional form of くる but I feel like the second sentence feels more like a command. As you might already know, the auxiliary よう can be used for 勧誘 (invitation) and also for an instruction (指示) or a soft command (軽い命令). It's often used by a parent or school teacher toward (a) young child(ren). So I think ...


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