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24

I think the word [時間]{じかん} was created in the Meiji era, but the word [時]{とき} is older. So it's definitely wrong that "the Japanese didn't have any interest in clocks (until 1871)". I searched in an old-Japanese dictionary and found the usage of 「とき」 in 竹取物語: [宵]{よひ}うち[過]{す}ぎて、[子]{ね}のときばかりに Here, the word [子]{ね}のとき refers to a certain time which is ...


22

Cross-linguistically, grammatical words like に and で are often unpredictable or idiosyncratic, and you can't always explain them logically. For example, in English, we say arrive at but not *arrive to. And we say Welcome to X but not *Welcome at X. Why? No reason. It's arbitrary. It seems like the alternatives should be just as logical, but for some ...


22

Roughly in the order of informality, native speakers would say: ・「じゃあ、明日{あした}(の)[11時]{じゅういちじ}に!」 (no verb) ・「では、明日(の)11時に!」 ・「それでは、明日(の)11時に!」 ・「じゃあ/では/それでは、明日(の)11時に(また)会{あ}いましょう。」 (with verb) The last phrase above is already "borderline formal", but for many adult speakers (if not for teenagers), it would sound fairly informal. An example of the ...


20

Yes, it is inclusive. All the similar phrases that use 以 are inclusive: 以内、以前、以上、以下、以来. However, unfortunately a lot of people do not know this and use them carelessly without thinking. If you wanted to express "After the 16th but not including it", you could say: 16日の翌日から参加できません。 However, I would be more inclined to say: 17日以降参加できません。


18

Addendum The word 時{とき} is probably the oldest native Japanese word for "time". This term appears in the 万葉集{まんようしゅう} written in Old Japanese and compiled from poems composed from the 300s through the 700s, completed some time after 759 CE. These are some of the oldest surviving examples of written Japanese, suggesting that this term is quite ancient ...


17

There are many ways to say "after ...ing" in japanese. There is no one to one translation, since you can use different words as "after" depending one the overall meaning of the sentence. -て から One of the most common translations and one of the first one learns would be: -て から This shouldn't be confused with the reason-giving から which is not used with ...


16

You can read the time of day in 24-hour format using the pronunciation for the numbers 13–24 as for the numbers 1–10 followed by 時【じ】, e.g. 15:40 = 15時40分 = じゅうごじ よんじゅっぷん 19:20 = 19時20分 = じゅうくじ にじゅっぷん In particular, exceptions to the usual readings are the same 4時 = よじ  → 14時 = じゅうよじ,  24時 = にじゅうよじ 7時 = しちじ → 17時 = じゅうしちじ 9時 = くじ  → 19時 = じゅうくじ ...


14

本日 is keigo. You will hear this on a train or airplane, or in a store. But you won't be saying it yourself, unless if you as a beginning student are put in the unlikely position of making an official announcement to someone. 今日 is what you would use in ordinary situations.


14

Two constructions spring to mind here. 数{すう} can be used in place of a specific number, followed by a counter, to mean "some" / "a few" / "several" (it doesn't really make a distinction in this respect...). 数時間後、彼は試験を終わった。 This can be used in ways you might not expect: 数十秒 some tens of seconds 十数秒 ten-(and-some)-odd seconds (between 10 and 19) ...


12

I think Hyperworm already did a good job of answering the question, so I'll just focus on saying "later"/"before". Adding 前{まえ} or 後{ご} after any of these to mean "a few ... ago" or "after a few ...", e.g. 数{すう}分{ふん}前{まえ} "a few minutes ago" or 数{すう}分{ふん}後{ご} "after a few minutes": 数{すう}秒{びょう}: "a few seconds" 数{すう}分{ふん}: "a few minutes" 数{すう}時{じ}間{かん}: "...


11

For the first four of your sentences (or, for "for X years / months / days / minutes / seconds"), I would use 「~[間]{かん}」, or just a counter such as 年, ヶ月, 日, 分 with no suffix (~間), or 「~の[間]{あいだ}」 depending on context, as in: アメリカに{[10年間]{じゅうねんかん} / 10年}住んでいます。 I have lived in the US for 10 years. (or アメリカに{[住]{す}んで / 住み[始]{はじ}めて}10年になります。 It's been ...


11

切る means 'to cut off' or 'to turn off', and it's likely used here to mean to turn off the power and finish using the microwave.


10

The かん here is 間 in kanji, and this is used as a suffix to refer to a span of time. ろくしゅう in your sentence is spelled 六週 in kanji and means "six weeks", but in a way that is more ambiguous than the English. Various suffixes can be added on the end to make things more specific, like 目{め} to mean "the sixth week", or 分{ぶん} to indicate six weeks' worth of ...


9

(Turning my own comment above into an answer. There will, however, be no references provided as OP requests. Everything I state here comes directly from my head as an average native Japanese-speaker.) First off, I would like to make it clear that this is not a question of nuance. This is a question of what I might call the "practical and intentional ...


8

Yes. You can address any day of the week by its first kanji, and you can refer to it in short using the respective onyomi. For example, you can say 月{げつ}水{すい}金{きん}はお休みです。 In fact you often hear the weekend referred to as (きん)どにち. You can also go half way and abbreviate it just to ◯曜, as in 日曜. Outside of spoken language you see the kanji used to represent ...


8

A quarter to three is 2時45分 (にじよんじゅうごふん), and a quarter past three is 3時15分 (さんじじゅうごふん). If we want to emphasize the difference from three o’clock, we can say “3時の15分前” and “3時の15分後,” but this is not the usual way to state the time.


8

Past Perspective: Formal As usual, expect to hear lots of "on" sounds. Preceding time: 「[前]{ぜん} + time word」 [前年]{ぜんねん}、[前月]{ぜんげつ}、[前週]{ぜんしゅう}、[前日]{ぜんじつ} Succeeding time: 「[翌]{よく} + time word」  [翌年]{よくねん}、[翌月]{よくげつ}, etc. Informal That means lots of "kun" sounds. Preceding time: 「(その)[前]{まえ}の + time word」 (その)[前]{まえ}の[年]{とし}、[前]{まえ}の[月]{つき}, etc. ...


8

It all depends on the numbers immediately preceding 「分」. 「ふん Hun」: 2, 5, 7, 9 and 00. 「ぷん Pun」: 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, etc. Examples: 「ふん Hun」: 32分(さんじゅうにふん)、15分(じゅうごふん)、57分(ごじゅうななふん)、9分(きゅうふん)、4-5分(しごふん [Only number 5, not number 4, affects the way 分 is pronounced.]) 「ぷん Pun」: 1分(いっぷん)、13分(じゅうさんぷん)、24分(にじゅうよんぷん)、6分(ろっぷん)、20分(にじゅっぷん)、...


8

"1年3ヶ月22日19時間25分14秒" works fine in scientific/technological contexts. In real conversations or mails, people usually add some と, typically after 1年, 22日 and/or 25分. と is sometimes mandatory because 1日1時間 usually means "an hour per day". As you already understand, [3月]{さんがつ} only means March and 19時 only means 19 o'clock. Using more than one 間 will make the ...


8

Google Translate, and indeed just about any machine translation engine, is still often shit for the Japanese ↔ English language pair. Do not rely on Google Translate to learn another language, especially when looking at a single word. Here are some time-of-day terms: 朝【あさ】 = "morning" 昼【ひる】 = "day, afternoon" 晩【ばん】 = "evening" 夜【よる】 = "late evening, night"...


7

Although 本日 will usually be too formal for most situations, there are many cases where you would use it over 今日 (with slightly different nuances). Typically when referring to something tied to the day's date: 本日の魚 (in a restaurant) 本日の会議 (in a professional context) etc.


7

1時 means "one o'clock". 1時間 means "one hour". So you have to say 1時間15分掛かる。 If you want to express the "about", you can say およそ1時間15分掛かる。 or 1時間15分くらい掛かる。


7

Never seen よーちぇん before but it must be a lazy pronunciation of 幼稚園{ようちえん} So: "I haven't forgotten it since kindergarten" And no context in the question but おらん will most likely be the negative of おる, yes.


7

I believe you are making the mistake of attempting to replicate an English pattern in Japanese. As snailboat points out, the idiomatic equivalent is as follows: 泥棒はいつまでたっても泥棒。/三つ子の魂百まで。/性格を変えることはできない。 And if you make this search, http://eow.alc.co.jp/search?q=Once+a+always+a one finds that the nearest Japanese equivalent seems to be: noun phrase ...


7

Earthliŋ has already provided a great answer, so instead of repeating what they've got, I figure I'll just fill out the information as it relates to the phrases presented in the question -- ways of saying it without 一【いち】, basically, and how natural they may or may not be. I did a few Google searches for various phrases (putting "quotes" around the terms to ...


7

By far the most common way of expressing that would be to use 「この」 as in 「この1時間」、「この1ヶ月(間)」、「この1年(間)」, etc. Some natural ways to say "I spent the past hour studying Japanese." for us native speakers are:  「日本語の勉強にこの1時間をかけました。」  「この1時間を日本語の勉強に[充]{あ}てました。」  「この1時間をかけて日本語を勉強しました。」  「この1時間をかけて日本語の勉強をしました。」


7

You have a choice; You can say it with or without 「は」. The more informal the speech, the more often the 「は」 is dropped. The only situation in which 「は」 is not optional and it must be used is when you talk about what someone ate/will eat this morning in comparison to what he ate/will eat on another day. That is always 「けさは」 as 「けさ」in those cases is an ...


7

The only corrrect (or natural-sounding) answer would be c) 一週間{いっしゅうかん}. To use 「~~にわたって」 the way native speakers would feel most appropriate, the ~~ part must physically be in the following structure: 「Cardinal Number + Counter Word of Time period + (間{かん})」 Among the three choices, only 「一週間」 fits that deccription. 「五月{ごがつ}」 does not fit because ...


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