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31

Cross-linguistically, grammatical words like に and で are often unpredictable or idiosyncratic, and you can't always explain them logically. For example, in English, we say arrive at but not *arrive to. And we say Welcome to X but not *Welcome at X. Why? No reason. It's arbitrary. It seems like the alternatives should be just as logical, but for some ...


24

I think the word [時間]{じかん} was created in the Meiji era, but the word [時]{とき} is older. So it's definitely wrong that "the Japanese didn't have any interest in clocks (until 1871)". I searched in an old-Japanese dictionary and found the usage of 「とき」 in 竹取物語: [宵]{よひ}うち[過]{す}ぎて、[子]{ね}のときばかりに Here, the word [子]{ね}のとき refers to a certain time which is ...


22

Roughly in the order of informality, native speakers would say: ・「じゃあ、明日{あした}(の)[11時]{じゅういちじ}に!」 (no verb) ・「では、明日(の)11時に!」 ・「それでは、明日(の)11時に!」 ・「じゃあ/では/それでは、明日(の)11時に(また)会{あ}いましょう。」 (with verb) The last phrase above is already "borderline formal", but for many adult speakers (if not for teenagers), it would sound fairly informal. An example of the ...


19

Addendum The word 時{とき} is probably the oldest native Japanese word for "time". This term appears in the 万葉集{まんようしゅう} written in Old Japanese and compiled from poems composed from the 300s through the 700s, completed some time after 759 CE. These are some of the oldest surviving examples of written Japanese, suggesting that this term is quite ancient ...


18

There are many ways to say "after ...ing" in japanese. There is no one to one translation, since you can use different words as "after" depending one the overall meaning of the sentence. -て から One of the most common translations and one of the first one learns would be: -て から This shouldn't be confused with the reason-giving から which is not used with ...


18

It is very simple: A 間 B  means; All the time that A took place B was also happening. (I read my book while it was raining) A 間に B means; While A took place B happend. The nuance to appreciate is that B is an event that occurred (started & finished) at some point during the period A took place. It did not go on all the time. (While it was raining ...


15

You can read the time of day in 24-hour format using the pronunciation for the numbers 13–24 as for the numbers 1–10 followed by 時【じ】, e.g. 15:40 = 15時40分 = じゅうごじ よんじゅっぷん 19:20 = 19時20分 = じゅうくじ にじゅっぷん In particular, exceptions to the usual readings are the same 4時 = よじ  → 14時 = じゅうよじ,  24時 = にじゅうよじ 7時 = しちじ → 17時 = じゅうしちじ 9時 = くじ  → 19時 = じゅうくじ The same ...


13

It is a bookish construction frequently seen in newspapers and academic papers. You can simply understand it as a する omitted (with its tense). 大学を卒業[後]【ご】 → 大学を卒業した後【あと】 デパートで買い物[前]【まえ】 → デパートで買い物する前【まえ】 滑走路に進入[時]【じ】 → 滑走路に進入(する/した)時【とき】 ワクチンを接種直後 → ワクチンを接種した直後 These expressions can be used whenever the previous verb is a サ変複合動詞 (noun + する), but not for ...


12

For the first four of your sentences (or, for "for X years / months / days / minutes / seconds"), I would use 「~[間]{かん}」, or just a counter such as 年, ヶ月, 日, 分 with no suffix (~間), or 「~の[間]{あいだ}」 depending on context, as in: アメリカに{[10年間]{じゅうねんかん} / 10年}住んでいます。 I have lived in the US for 10 years. (or アメリカに{[住]{す}んで / 住み[始]{はじ}めて}10年になります。 It's been ...


11

切る means 'to cut off' or 'to turn off', and it's likely used here to mean to turn off the power and finish using the microwave.


10

The かん here is 間 in kanji, and this is used as a suffix to refer to a span of time. ろくしゅう in your sentence is spelled 六週 in kanji and means "six weeks", but in a way that is more ambiguous than the English. Various suffixes can be added on the end to make things more specific, like 目{め} to mean "the sixth week", or 分{ぶん} to indicate six weeks' worth of ...


10

Adding 間 turns a fixed point in time into a period of time. "It's 7 o'clock" is a fixed time so it would just be 七時. You would add 間 if you wanted to say that you'd been doing something for seven hours, for example.


9

Past Perspective: Formal As usual, expect to hear lots of "on" sounds. Preceding time: 「[前]{ぜん} + time word」 [前年]{ぜんねん}、[前月]{ぜんげつ}、[前週]{ぜんしゅう}、[前日]{ぜんじつ} Succeeding time: 「[翌]{よく} + time word」  [翌年]{よくねん}、[翌月]{よくげつ}, etc. Informal That means lots of "kun" sounds. Preceding time: 「(その)[前]{まえ}の + time word」 (その)[前]{まえ}の[年]{とし}、[前]{まえ}の[月]{つき}, etc. ...


9

分 meaning "minute(s)" When 分 is used as a counter with the meaning "minute(s)", it is read as follows: 1分 = いっぷん 2分 = にふん 3分 = さんぷん 4分 = よんぷん 5分 = ごふん 6分 = ろっぷん 7分 = ななふん 8分 = はちふん・はっぷん 9分 = きゅうふん 10分 = じゅっぷん・じっぷん These "irregularities" are due to sound changes. The above sound changes are particular to 分【ふん】, but gemination is often ...


9

Yes. You can address any day of the week by its first kanji, and you can refer to it in short using the respective onyomi. For example, you can say 月{げつ}水{すい}金{きん}はお休みです。 In fact you often hear the weekend referred to as (きん)どにち. You can also go half way and abbreviate it just to ◯曜, as in 日曜. Outside of spoken language you see the kanji used to represent ...


9

It all depends on the numbers immediately preceding 「分」. 「ふん Hun」: 2, 5, 7, 9 and 00. 「ぷん Pun」: 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, etc. Examples: 「ふん Hun」: 32分(さんじゅうにふん)、15分(じゅうごふん)、57分(ごじゅうななふん)、9分(きゅうふん)、4-5分(しごふん [Only number 5, not number 4, affects the way 分 is pronounced.]) 「ぷん Pun」: 1分(いっぷん)、13分(じゅうさんぷん)、24分(にじゅうよんぷん)、6分(ろっぷん)、20分(にじゅっぷん)、60分(...


9

(Turning my own comment above into an answer. There will, however, be no references provided as OP requests. Everything I state here comes directly from my head as an average native Japanese-speaker.) First off, I would like to make it clear that this is not a question of nuance. This is a question of what I might call the "practical and intentional ...


9

There are two reasons. Unlike ~の間に, it seems that ~のうちに cannot be directly used with nouns that denote an event. (As long as it's used with the noun that denotes a time span, it can be very short) 今年のうちに/今日のうちに/7月のうちに/夏のうちに 朝のうちに/午前のうちに/日中のうちに 夏休みのうちに/オリンピックの開催期間のうちに 小学生のうちに/子供のうちに 一瞬のうちに [*]番組のうちに/[*]コンサートのうちに/[*]オリンピックのうちに Your ...


9

"1年3ヶ月22日19時間25分14秒" works fine in scientific/technological contexts. In real conversations or mails, people usually add some と, typically after 1年, 22日 and/or 25分. と is sometimes mandatory because 1日1時間 usually means "an hour per day". As you already understand, [3月]{さんがつ} only means March and 19時 only means 19 o'clock. Using more than one 間 will make the ...


9

Google Translate, and indeed just about any machine translation engine, is still often shit for the Japanese ↔ English language pair. Do not rely on Google Translate to learn another language, especially when looking at a single word. Here are some time-of-day terms: 朝【あさ】 = "morning" 昼【ひる】 = "day, afternoon" 晩【ばん】 = "evening" 夜【よる】 = "late evening, night"...


9

As a native speaker, I also feel uncomfortable with 事故は先週に起こった, which can be said to be a little unnatural but probably cannot be said to be ungrammatical. 先週 plays the role of an adverb in this sentence, so its natural sentence will be: 事故は先週起こった。 But as a writer, I would like to avoid this, because I don't like the awkward sequence of Chinese characters ...


8

Either way is fine. The "rules" regarding this are a bit irregular. 「間{かん}」 optional with: 秒、分、日、月、年 「間」 needed with: 時、週 This is because for instance, 1時 and 1時間 mean completely different things -- "1 o'clock" and "one hour", respectively. We say something like 「3週連続で」 ("for three consecutive weeks") without a 「間」 as a set phrase, but 「第三週」 means "...


8

In most situations, including ordinary business exchanges, they are completely interchangeable. Maybe 半 is a bit more common in casual conversations simply because it's easier to pronounce, but saying 30分 is always safe. 30分 is preferred in formal written text and technical contexts where consistency and clarity is important, but I guess "half past 3&...


7

Never seen よーちぇん before but it must be a lazy pronunciation of 幼稚園{ようちえん} So: "I haven't forgotten it since kindergarten" And no context in the question but おらん will most likely be the negative of おる, yes.


7

I believe you are making the mistake of attempting to replicate an English pattern in Japanese. As snailboat points out, the idiomatic equivalent is as follows: 泥棒はいつまでたっても泥棒。/三つ子の魂百まで。/性格を変えることはできない。 And if you make this search, http://eow.alc.co.jp/search?q=Once+a+always+a one finds that the nearest Japanese equivalent seems to be: noun phrase ...


7

There actually is a rule governing the "Noun + Adjective" structures. The noun must signify either a spatial or temporal unit such as [朝]{あさ}、[夜]{よる}、[空]{そら}、[天]{てん}、[奥]{おく}、 [時]{とき}、 [数]{かず}, etc. The adjective must signify a degree or quantity regarding the preceding noun. These include [早]{はや}い、[遅]{おそ}い、[高]{たか}い、[低]{ひく}い、[多]{おお}い、[少]{すく}ない、[深]{ふか}い, ...


7

I've summarized the following from a Dictionary of Basic Grammar which seems a little different from what you state. (Note that I'm not a native speaker.) The time span in the clause before 間 and the main clause is the same, whereas the time span in the clause before 間に is wider than the time span of the main clause. For example: 山田さんが巴里{パリ}...


7

By far the most common way of expressing that would be to use 「この」 as in 「この1時間」、「この1ヶ月(間)」、「この1年(間)」, etc. Some natural ways to say "I spent the past hour studying Japanese." for us native speakers are:  「日本語の勉強にこの1時間をかけました。」  「この1時間を日本語の勉強に[充]{あ}てました。」  「この1時間をかけて日本語を勉強しました。」  「この1時間をかけて日本語の勉強をしました。」


7

Earthliŋ has already provided a great answer, so instead of repeating what they've got, I figure I'll just fill out the information as it relates to the phrases presented in the question -- ways of saying it without 一【いち】, basically, and how natural they may or may not be. I did a few Google searches for various phrases (putting "quotes" around the terms to ...


7

No, you won't see any case particle after following words, official or not, as long as they're used to indicate the time when the sentence takes place on/in, because they are completely adverbial in this usage. 昨日, 今日, 明日 etc. 先週, 今週, 来週 etc. 先月, 今月, 来月 etc. 前期, 今期, 来期 etc. 去年, 今年, 来年 etc. 今朝, 明朝, 昨晩, 今晩, 今夜 etc. 毎日, 毎週, 毎月, 毎年 etc. 6時に荷物が届きそうだ。 夕方(に)...


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