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26

Cross-linguistically, grammatical words like に and で are often unpredictable or idiosyncratic, and you can't always explain them logically. For example, in English, we say arrive at but not *arrive to. And we say Welcome to X but not *Welcome at X. Why? No reason. It's arbitrary. It seems like the alternatives should be just as logical, but for some ...


24

I think the word [時間]{じかん} was created in the Meiji era, but the word [時]{とき} is older. So it's definitely wrong that "the Japanese didn't have any interest in clocks (until 1871)". I searched in an old-Japanese dictionary and found the usage of 「とき」 in 竹取物語: [宵]{よひ}うち[過]{す}ぎて、[子]{ね}のときばかりに Here, the word [子]{ね}のとき refers to a certain time which is ...


20

Yes, it is inclusive. All the similar phrases that use 以 are inclusive: 以内、以前、以上、以下、以来. However, unfortunately a lot of people do not know this and use them carelessly without thinking. If you wanted to express "After the 16th but not including it", you could say: 16日の翌日から参加できません。 However, I would be more inclined to say: 17日以降参加できません。


19

Addendum The word 時{とき} is probably the oldest native Japanese word for "time". This term appears in the 万葉集{まんようしゅう} written in Old Japanese and compiled from poems composed from the 300s through the 700s, completed some time after 759 CE. These are some of the oldest surviving examples of written Japanese, suggesting that this term is quite ancient ...


17

There are many ways to say "after ...ing" in japanese. There is no one to one translation, since you can use different words as "after" depending one the overall meaning of the sentence. -て から One of the most common translations and one of the first one learns would be: -て から This shouldn't be confused with the reason-giving から which is not used with ...


15

You can read the time of day in 24-hour format using the pronunciation for the numbers 13–24 as for the numbers 1–10 followed by 時【じ】, e.g. 15:40 = 15時40分 = じゅうごじ よんじゅっぷん 19:20 = 19時20分 = じゅうくじ にじゅっぷん In particular, exceptions to the usual readings are the same 4時 = よじ  → 14時 = じゅうよじ,  24時 = にじゅうよじ 7時 = しちじ → 17時 = じゅうしちじ 9時 = くじ  → 19時 = じゅうくじ The same ...


12

For the first four of your sentences (or, for "for X years / months / days / minutes / seconds"), I would use 「~[間]{かん}」, or just a counter such as 年, ヶ月, 日, 分 with no suffix (~間), or 「~の[間]{あいだ}」 depending on context, as in: アメリカに{[10年間]{じゅうねんかん} / 10年}住んでいます。 I have lived in the US for 10 years. (or アメリカに{[住]{す}んで / 住み[始]{はじ}めて}10年になります。 It's been ...


11

切る means 'to cut off' or 'to turn off', and it's likely used here to mean to turn off the power and finish using the microwave.


10

The かん here is 間 in kanji, and this is used as a suffix to refer to a span of time. ろくしゅう in your sentence is spelled 六週 in kanji and means "six weeks", but in a way that is more ambiguous than the English. Various suffixes can be added on the end to make things more specific, like 目{め} to mean "the sixth week", or 分{ぶん} to indicate six weeks' worth of ...


10

Adding 間 turns a fixed point in time into a period of time. "It's 7 o'clock" is a fixed time so it would just be 七時. You would add 間 if you wanted to say that you'd been doing something for seven hours, for example.


9

Yes. You can address any day of the week by its first kanji, and you can refer to it in short using the respective onyomi. For example, you can say 月{げつ}水{すい}金{きん}はお休みです。 In fact you often hear the weekend referred to as (きん)どにち. You can also go half way and abbreviate it just to ◯曜, as in 日曜. Outside of spoken language you see the kanji used to represent ...


9

分 meaning "minute(s)" When 分 is used as a counter with the meaning "minute(s)", it is read as follows: 1分 = いっぷん 2分 = にふん 3分 = さんぷん 4分 = よんぷん 5分 = ごふん 6分 = ろっぷん 7分 = ななふん 8分 = はちふん・はっぷん 9分 = きゅうふん 10分 = じゅっぷん・じっぷん These "irregularities" are due to sound changes. The above sound changes are particular to 分【ふん】, but gemination is often ...


9

"1年3ヶ月22日19時間25分14秒" works fine in scientific/technological contexts. In real conversations or mails, people usually add some と, typically after 1年, 22日 and/or 25分. と is sometimes mandatory because 1日1時間 usually means "an hour per day". As you already understand, [3月]{さんがつ} only means March and 19時 only means 19 o'clock. Using more than one 間 will make the ...


9

Google Translate, and indeed just about any machine translation engine, is still often shit for the Japanese ↔ English language pair. Do not rely on Google Translate to learn another language, especially when looking at a single word. Here are some time-of-day terms: 朝【あさ】 = "morning" 昼【ひる】 = "day, afternoon" 晩【ばん】 = "evening" 夜【よる】 = "late evening, night"...


7

Earthliŋ has already provided a great answer, so instead of repeating what they've got, I figure I'll just fill out the information as it relates to the phrases presented in the question -- ways of saying it without 一【いち】, basically, and how natural they may or may not be. I did a few Google searches for various phrases (putting "quotes" around the terms to ...


7

Never seen よーちぇん before but it must be a lazy pronunciation of 幼稚園{ようちえん} So: "I haven't forgotten it since kindergarten" And no context in the question but おらん will most likely be the negative of おる, yes.


7

I believe you are making the mistake of attempting to replicate an English pattern in Japanese. As snailboat points out, the idiomatic equivalent is as follows: 泥棒はいつまでたっても泥棒。/三つ子の魂百まで。/性格を変えることはできない。 And if you make this search, http://eow.alc.co.jp/search?q=Once+a+always+a one finds that the nearest Japanese equivalent seems to be: noun phrase ...


6

About the question that isn't covered by the link Flaw provided: However, and contradicting the explanation given, the second example sentence does not take に. This is because here it is not an adverb nor a pronoun. Here です is a copula linking かいぎ to すいようび. に would be correct when you have a different verb, as in かいぎはすいようびにあります。


6

The main point for saying "rough [time]" is that you should express [time] as a proper time period. (one) day 一日【いちにち】 (one) month [一ヶ月]{いっかげつ} (one) year 一年【いちねん】 (Cf., 良い一日を "Have a nice day".) 大変な一日だった/でした is I think common for "I had a rough day". 大変な一年 works similarly. 難しい一年 works as well, although it's more like "difficult year" than "rough ...


6

I assume that it is a notice received from a library (please include the context in the question). The notice means that borrowing by you is suspended until Feb. 13, inclusive, and therefore you cannot check out library materials on Feb. 13. An example from Catch a Wave, April 13, 2012, via Space ALC: 毎年恒例のニューヨーク国際自動車ショーが今年は4月6日から15日まで開催されている。 The ...


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