42

No. Japanese "haute cuisine" is called 懐石(料理). Mathematical analysis is 解析(学). What is true is that 懐石 and 解析 are homophones, both pronounced かいせき and, in context, both may be referred to as かいせき. However, they are not the same word. By the way, there are more homophones for かいせき, so he could have also said that "analysis" is the "same word" as bizarre ...


24

While the pronunciation is the same, the words' etymologies are unrelated. Mathematical analysis is 解析(kaiseki かいせき) while (Japanese) fine cuisine is 懐石(kaiseki かいせき). Both 解 and 析 roughly stands for "understanding", "taking apart". For example, 解説(kaisetu) means "To orally explain", 分析(bunseki) means "To analyze". On the other hand, 懐(kai) refers to ...


22

The word you are looking for is 「行{ぎょう}」. Therefore, the columns are named 「ア行」、「カ行」、「サ行」, etc. How could I say "I think the last kana was a 'g—' kana...'? You could say: 「最後{さいご}の文字{もじ}はガ行のかなだったと思{おも}う。」 In case someone is wondering what we call the horizontal rows of kana on that chart, they are called 「段{だん}」. We say 「ア段」、「イ段」, etc.


19

The columns (or rows) that have the same initial consonant are labeled as the first item in that column (consonant + a) followed by [行]{ぎょう}. Examples of such are あ行, か行, さ行, た行, etc. The rows (or columns) that have the same vowel sound are labeled with that vowel in hiragana (あ, い, う, え, or お) followed by [段]{だん}. Thus, the five rows are labeled as あ段, い段, ...


18

舒适区 is totally unfamiliar to Japanese. I don't even know what the first two kanjis are. Anyway, if you want to emphasize the negative aspect of "comfort zone" and want to say "the place you can't stay forever", a good word for both of your examples is 「ぬるま湯【ゆ】」 (literally "tepid water"). ぬるま湯につかる = stay safe, avoid challenge, lack vitality The trip is ...


17

I think I can see how you are confused about these two words, but I feel like the confusion might have stemmed from the English Japanese dictionary definitions, or rather the confusing nature of the English word "surgery". I don't think the two Japanese words overlap as much as the related English concepts. "Surgery" is a medical ...


16

現金 is the word that corresponds to cash as opposed to money in a bank account, etc. 紙幣 means paper money or banknotes as opposed to 硬貨 (coins).


14

We call them 「三英傑{さんえいけつ}」 at least around Nagoya where all of the three are from. https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E4%B8%89%E8%8B%B1%E5%82%91 Outside of Central Japan, however, you might actually end up having to name the three when talking to people who are not too well-read on Japanese history.


12

The following terms are synonyms: consonant-stem verb u-verb class 1 verb, group 1 verb, type 1 verb, ... godan (五段) verb The following terms are synonyms: vowel-stem verb ru-verb class 2 verb, group 2 verb, type 2 verb, ... ichidan (一段) verb


11

I think that even twins, born only moments apart, are considered to be older and younger based on who was born first. So even if you're both twenty years old, the normal rules apply. That's why you can say things like 双子のお兄さん "older twin brother".


11

I think you have a couple choices. For "fluent": ペラペラ。 This is a slightly colloquial word (due to being an onomatopoeia sounding like quick speech), which can mean "fluent", both in the sense of (a) speaking uninterruptedly, and by extension, (b) being skilled in the language. This might be the most common word you hear when describing someone as "fluent" ...


10

In Japanese, there are two sets of words we learn to describe various kinds of quadrilaterals. Mathematical terms are 四角形【しかっけい】 quadrilaterals, 台形【だいけい】 trapezoid, 平行四辺形【へいこうしへんけい】 parallelogram, 菱形【ひしがた】 rhombus, 長方形【ちょうほうけい】 rectangle and 正方形【せいほうけい】 square. Some are specialized forms of others, as shown below: If I remember correctly, Japanese people ...


9

ドットマトリクス is an established word, but unfortunately only among mechanical engineers. I'm not very sure how common the word is in English, but I can confirm that it's anything but what you'd hear from lay people in Japan. If you want them to grasp the concept of dot matrix, I think you can only explain it: 電光掲示板のような, 古いレシートのような, 絨毯の織り目のような, 点描画のような, 点を並べて作る ...


9

Before cooking rice, many people wash the rice by "grinding" (hence 研ぐ) the individual grains against one another under flowing water until the water runs more or less clear. (In the olden days the purpose of the grinding was to remove the hull (糠【ぬか】).) In the process of this, together with rest of the hulls and dust, minerals and starch are also removed. ...


9

土方 is a common word, but if you want a neutral term that is usable in news articles, essays and such, (建築/土木)作業員 is better. 土方 tends to have a negative/derogatory undertone, and we never see it used in government documents and such. Basically I always refrain from referring to someone as 土方. Some broadcasting companies even have explicitly prohibited it as ...


8

I often hear it referred to as [ムービー]{LHHH} (rather than [ムービー]{HLLL}), although I hear カットシーン is equally common.


8

擬声語{ぎせいご}・擬音語{ぎおんご} and 擬態語{ぎたいご}・擬情語{ぎじょうご} In general: Onomatopoeia (Ideophone). Specifically, in order, words that mimic: voices, sounds, states, and feelings. See the wiki article.


8

Your kanji are correct. [受]{う}け[身]{み}. You can also write it [受]{うけ}[身]{み}. The general meaning of 受け身, however, is not "receiving body" but "passive." Thus, the passive voice "it is written by him" (vs. active "he writes"). I am not familiar with your martial art, but I would guess that it means you take a passive rather than active role in the combat -- ...


8

You'll understand if you just look at them romanized: Vowel-stem verbs (一段動詞)  食べない tabe-nai  食べます tabe-masu  食べる  tabe-ru  食べれば tabe-reba  食べよう tabe-yoo The stem is tabe-, which ends with /e/, a vowel. Consonant-stem verbs (五段動詞)  泳がない oyog-anai  泳ぎます oyog-imasu  泳ぐ   oyog-u  泳げば  oyog-eba  泳ごう  oyog-oo The stem is oyog-, which ends with /g/, a ...


8

ルビ (rubi) is jargon which mainly refers to the characters' appearance (small annotative characters placed on top of or to the right of main text), and is preferred in the publishing industry. Even Microsoft Word call those characters ルビ, and I believe the majority of native Japanese people understand this term. We sometimes encounter rubies which are not ...


7

In Japanese it is called 連体修飾語 (for a word) or 連体修飾節 (for a phrase). 連体修飾 means modification or description of a noun, or in Japanese 体言に連なる修飾. As suggested by the word “prenominal”, it is placed before a noun. Eg: 手の込んだ 料理 Here, 手の込んだ is placed before and describes 料理. Usually, 連体形 of 用言 (動詞, 形容詞 and 形容動詞) is used as 連体修飾語. 手の込んだ is also a 連体形. 手 (...


7

You may or may not know that the so-called "Bushido code" was popularized (and somewhat canonized) by Inazo Nitobé [sic] in Bushido: The Soul of Japan (1900) and first published in English. One could say that the canon word for "veracity" in the sense of the "Bushido code" is the English word "veracity". Only some years later, after being popular overseas, ...


6

So-called 擬{ぎ}態{たい}語{ご} like ギラギラ, クルクル are often referred to in English as mimetic words, mimesis, or mimetics. These identifiers seem to be more popular than ideophones on this site. See the search results: "mimetic" vs "ideophone". Strictly speaking, these words have a broader sense, and seem to include onomatopoeic words like ニャア, ピーポー. The Wikipedia ...


6

Apparently Dr. John Langdon Down discovered around 1860 what's now called Down's syndrome. Just like anyone, Dr. Down didn't name the syndrome after himself, but named it "mongolism" (also "mongoloid"), which was used widely until the 1960s. (More info here, at Down's Syndrome Scotland.) I'm guessing that 蒙古症 is a literal translation from ...


6

There is a single word that means "fake news". 虚報【きょほう】 Besides, if you want the adjective only, you can use: 偽(の)、偽物の、嘘(の) 虚構新聞, a counterpart of The Onion in Japan says in the disclaimer: これは嘘ニュースです For other phrases, I don't know much because I'm not familiar with colloquial English, but if I can put credit in Urban Dictionary's definitions (...


6

_都/道/府/県 _市 _区 _町 町 is just part of the name of an area in 市/区, so it can be written as (-)cho or (-)machi depending on its actual name. An area name does not always contain 町. 東京都町田市小山町(Oyamacho / Oyama-cho) 東京都町田市金森(Kanamori) 東京都千代田区一番町(Ichibancho / Ichiban-cho) 東京都千代田区飯田橋(Iidabashi) 大阪府大阪市中央区松屋町(Matsuyamachi / Matsuya-machi) 大阪府大阪市中央区北浜(Kitahama) Note: ...


6

山田孝雄, a Japanese linguist, called this type of phrase/sentence 喚体句. This is used to make a sentence sound dramatic and vivid. It is especially common in poetry (haiku, lyrics, ...), but this pattern is often seen in live commentary in sports and in the narrative part of novels, too. He called ordinary sentences (ending with a verb/adjective/copula) 述体句. ...


6

In short: 敬語 consists of 尊敬語, 謙譲語 and 美化語. お/ご as a prefix can form either 尊敬語 or 美化語, or neither. The concepts of 尊敬語 and 美化語 are mutually exclusive, but お/ご can be found in both. You have to remember which お-/ご-words are 尊敬語. For example, お/ご as a 尊敬語: お名前, お着物, お住まい, おビール, ご婦人, ご来店, ごゆっくり (Can be only used to refer to something that belongs to your ...


5

When learning Japanese as a foreign language, "consonant-stem" (respectively "vowel-stem") verbs are called thus, because their stem ends in a consonant (resp. vowel), where "stem" refers to the part not changing during inflection (conjugation). mi-ru, mi-tai, mi-masu, mi-nai, mi-r-eba, mi-y-ou... kik-u, kik-i-tai, kik-i-masu, ...


5

I think this was first used in Eleanor Jorden's Beginning Japanese (1962). Here's how it's described on page 56 of her text: Grammatically speaking, an extended predicate consists of a nominal n̄/no + √da predicate, with the nominal preceded by a sentence modifier. Jorden was a prominent structuralist and student of Bernard Bloch, but I don't think ...


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