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9

It is from the verb 「通{とお}す」. 「Verb in 連用形{れんようけい} (continuative form) + 通す」 means: "to continue [verb]-ing to the end" In 「しどおし」, the first 「し」 is the 連用形 of the verb 「する」. 「どおし」is the 連用形 of 「通す」. The と-to-ど change is rendaku. Thus, 「どおし」 has nothing to do with「同士」 -- none. 「通す」 is written 「とおす」 in kana, not 「とうす」. My TL of the line: "Even ...


6

「前進{ぜんしん}あるのみ」 「練習{れんしゅう}あるのみ」 Replace the 「あるのみ」 part by the other words you mentioned and these phrases will lose the nice literary and/or old-fashioned 'feel' that was intended by the author/speaker. In other words, one should not try to make these phrases look or sound unnecessarily more conversational. 「[Noun] + あるのみ」 should be left alone as ...


6

「金{かね}は取{と}れる時に取れるところから取れるだけ取っておくものだ。」 I shall insert commas so that the sentence might look somewhat more manageable to some. 「金は、取れる時に、取れるところから、取れるだけ、取っておくものだ。」 The core of this sentence is: 「金は取っておくものだ。」 ("One should take/earn money.") The original sentence adds three qualifiers to the core as below: 「金は (when) (from where/who) (how much) ...


5

First, as a basic rule, the polite copula です must be preceded by a (pro)noun or an adjective (eg 犬です, 元気です). お名前はですか is plain ungrammatical because です is directly preceded by the topic marker は. How about 何があなたのお名前ですか? This is actually grammatical, but almost always nonsensical, because this uses exhaustive-listing-ga and thus sounds like "What is the one ...


3

Regarding this ~とては, I initially thought this was a typo, but this seems to be a valid construction taken from an archaic grammar pattern, meaning "Speaking of ~" or something. See @goldbrick's comment. Usually ~としては ("As for ~", "As ~", "From ~'s standpoint", "As far as ~ is concerned") is used in modern standard Japanese. ~があるばかりだ is "there is only ~" or "...


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