31

ちょっと待ってて (chotto matte te) literally means "Keep waiting for a while (please)." That て (te) at the end does not mean "I'll be back shortly", at least grammatically. ちょっと (chotto) just means "for a while", "a little", etc. 待ってて (matte te) is constructed as follows: 待つ (matsu): simple intransitive verb, "to wait" 待って (matte): te-form of 待つ 待っている (matte iru): ...


27

I think I don't have enough English vocabulary to express this nuance. So please let me try to explain this visually.   「~てきた」 First of all, 「~てきた」 expresses something in the past. If the speaker at present says 「~てきた」, s/he is talking about something which started sometime in the past and continued until now. Like the sentence, 「([今]{いま}まで)[私]{わたし}はまっすぐな[...


23

Subsidiary verbs, known as 補助動詞(ほじょどうし) in Japanese grammar, are a small set of verbs which have grammaticalized uses following 〜て. According to Martin†, these verbs include: いる・おる・いらっしゃる くる・まいる いく くれる・くださる しまう みる おく もらう・いただく ある・ございます やる・あげる みせる In these grammaticalized uses, they have several properties: They form a single ...


22

When you contract te oku to t'oku, you're still conjugating oku, so the normal rules apply. The only reason this might not be clear is that kana prevents us from dividing t'oku into t' and oku. Subsidiary verbs following ~て are grammaticalized, and people tend to contract grammatical words. So naturally, there are a number of contractions of ~て with ...


19

Does that mean I have come to cherish or something like that? Yes, that is precisely the idea! Now, a grammar explanation... 「なる」 here means "to reach a certain (new) state" and you will keep encountering this usage of the word as long as you study Japanese. That is a promise from a native speaker. 「[連用形]{れんようけい} (continuative form) + なる」= "to become ~...


16

I think the most basic meaning in English is "wind up" or "end up". That seems to work for all of your sentences: どうしても写真は実物より劣ってしまう。 Somehow the photo always winds up being inferior to the real thing. 私はどうしても彼を目で追ってしまう。 I always somehow wind up following him with my eyes. 「私の場合、どうしても溝口健二と比べてしまう。」 In my case, I always somehow end up comparing ...


15

「Verb + てやる」 has two (very) different meanings/usages. 1) To offer to do something in a patronizing or condescending tone as to demand gratitude. 2) To (proactively) perform an action so as to prove one's ability to others. OP seems to be talking about #2 above. My own example sentences: 1) 「[心配]{しんぱい}するな。1[年]{ねん}くらいオレが[食]{た}べさせてやる。」 = "Don't worry. I'...


14

「〜いる」 primer Japanese is honestly far more simple than English when it comes to aspect. In Japanese, the rule is that 「〜いる」 means you are currently (or will be) in some state related to the verb, while 「〜いた」 means you had been in some state related to the verb. There are many such states: The state of doing something (progressive). The state of regularly ...


11

I think the usage of すぎる parallels that of "too much" — usually "too much" means that it's "so much that it's something negative". But colloquially, this can be used for emphasis, as in "so much that it is (almost) too much", meaning "very much" but in a positive (rather than a negative) way. (See also What does できなさすぎる mean?) For example, if you say ...


10

Yes, you are missing something important in the second sentence 「よく道を聞いてもらいます。」. Your understanding of the first is good, judging from the TL. The second sentence, by the way, is 100% grammatical but its content/meaning is more than just weird. It is highly unlikely that a policeman would say it unless there was an incredibly super-shy policeman somewhere....


10

1)「晩{ばん}ご飯{はん}が作{つく}ってある。」 Dinner has been made (and it is still there untouched.) 2)「晩ご飯を作っておいた.」 Someone made dinner some time ago (so that I/someone could eat it later on). The difference in meaning between the two sentences would depend heavily on the current situation of the meal that one made. Sentence #1, even without any further context, would ...


10

That statement basically only applies for おる as a simple existence verb. Non-humble おる is very common in Kansai. As a subsidiary verb, various forms including とる/ちょる/よる are commonly used instead of standard (~て)いる, but there are considerable regional variations even inside Kansai. See this discussion. 太郎はおる。 There is Taro. / Taro is here. (≒太郎はいる) ...


10

You've gotten the みたい part wrong. What you are seeing is a subsidiary verb (~て)みる, which means "to try doing something (and see what happens)". See: What is the difference between "verb+て+みる" and "verb+(よ)う+とする"? みたい meaning "to seem / look like" never follows a te-form. 聞く "to ask" 聞いてみる "to try asking" 聞いてみたい "to want to try asking" ...


10

Let's break this sentence down. 虫に変ってしまっているのに気づいた At a basic level this sentence breaks up into two fundamental parts: (A) 虫に変った -- Someone/thing changed into a bug and (B) 気づいた -- Someone noticed something. What is noticed is being changed into a bug. That would make sentence A the object of 気づいた. Two things need to happen here to complete this ...


9

You could argue that the てしまう* doesn't technically add any new information to the sentence in the form of a subject or object, but that's not to say that it's not useful. *This is the same thing as てしまいます but in plain form -- don't worry about it for now, it's not relevant to this discussion Firstly, to clear up your question, the てしまいました is actually split ...


9

ワインを買っていく literally means "I'll buy wine and go". You'd say this to mean "I'll buy wine on my way to the place where you are (≂ I'll buy wine and bring it to the place where you are)", "I'll buy wine on my way to somewhere (away from the hearer) (≂ I'll buy wine and bring it to somewhere (away from the hearer))", or "I'll ...


9

You've basically got it right. The sentence presents a counterfactual, and there are a couple of words/constructions that are there simply to denote a regretful situation. 特許を取っておかない is simply the negative of 特許を取っておく、which means "get a patent." The ておく construction is there to imply "get a patent in advance to prevent misuse of your invention." おかない just ...


9

かける can be used as an subsidiary verb to mean "start to [verb]", so 崩れかけた is indeed the 連用形 ren'yōkei (masu-stem) of 崩れる followed by かけた. 崩れかけた門 means "a gate, which has started to break down / deteriorate". Of course you would usually translate this more directly, maybe (for lack of a better word) "deteriorating / wrecked gate"....


8

しとけ = しておけ = する + おく Combined with に, this する means "to choose", not "to do". 「どこにも行くなここにしとけ。」 suggests that someone has been looking for a good/best place for something, and the speaker says that no more searching is necessary because that place has been found, which is "this" place. So, your translation is already good. ここにしとけ literally means "Choose ...


8

You are correct. 「[携帯番号交換]{けいたいばんごうこうかん}しとくんだったな。。。」 means that the persons involved DID NOT exchange cellphone numbers. 「しとくんだったな」=「しておくんだったな」 = "should have ~~ed" 「~~しておくんだった」, which is used idiomatically, expresses one's retrospective regret of not having done ~~. In this sense, one could call it "invisible" as it is all idiomatic instead of any ...


8

〜てみた is the past tense of 〜てみる "to try to [verb]", e.g. 食べてみる to try to eat / to taste / to try [some food] 言ってみただけ usually means something like "just kidding". Of course, literally it means "I only tried to say it [because I thought it might be funny]". It's also a common way to backtrack and try to turn an inappropriate comment into something you "...


7

I might suggest a slightly different nuance in understanding the [補助動詞]{ほじょどうし} くれる. In question forms, it asks whether someone would do something for the speaker. In the past tense, it expresses when the speaker's judgment that he received some benefit from the action of the main verb. Thus, アイスを買ってくれた。 is not merely "he bought ice cream" , but ...


7

It is not 「おられる姿{すがた}」 that you should be looking at. It is: 「戦{たたか}っておられる姿」 「戦っておられる」=「戦っていらっしゃる」 Both are expressions of respect. The plain form is 「戦っている」. 「戦っておられる姿」 means "how she looks when fighting". 「姿」 is a very difficult word to translate. "the way someone looks", "someone's appearance", etc. "I also sympathize with the way she looks ...


7

(1) chyotto matte tte (2) why does the tte mean "... and I'll be back shortly". (1) ちょっと待{ま}ってって ↓ 「ちょっと待{ま}って」って ↓ 「ちょっと待って(ください)」って ↓ 「ちょっと待って(ください)」と ↓ 「ちょっと待って(ください)」と(私{わたし}が言{い}ってるのに、あなたはなぜ待ってくれないの?) ↓ 「ちょっと待って(ください)」と(私が言ってるのに、あなたはなぜ待ってくれないの?) 「I'll be back shortly」って思{おも}ってるのに。 ↓ (2) Why don't you wait for me a moment in spite of my saying "...


7

No, adding すぎる to the end of a noun, verb, or adjective does not necessarily imply that being too much of something is bad, though we generally only use it this way colloquially. Some examples: 彼は大人(っぽ)すぎて本当に尊敬するわ。 He's so mature and I really respect him for that. 妻の料理が好きすぎてたまんない! I love my wife's cooking soooo f**king much!! さっきの犬可愛すぎる! That dog we just ...


6

In this context, 帰る can mean either "to come home" or "to go home". Essentially, it means "to return home", which can imply either direction (coming or going). So, we use the ~てくる construction (movement toward the speaker) to make it clear that the person is coming home. We can also use the ~ていく construction (movement away from the speaker), but I think it'...


6

This use of しまう is like adding "regrettably", or "unfortunately". It means that the action given in the て form is not a good thing. The fact that pictures don't do somebody justice is not a good thing. So they end the sentence with しまう. ああいう話{はな}し方{かた}は、人の年齢{ねんれい}をさらけだしてしまう。 "That style of speaking reveals a person's true age, unfortunately". This means ...


6

The difference between 出る and 出てくる is that the later is specifically oriented towards the speaker (and if included, which is not always the case, also the hearer). Compare the next two examples: a. 家から出てきた。 [Someone] came out of the house. b. 家を出ていった。 [Someone] left the house. OR [Someone] left for good. In (a), we are located outside of the ...


6

1)「昼ごはんを作った/作りました。」= "I/Someone cooked lunch." ↑ Plain past. 2)「昼ごはんを作っていた/作っていました。」= "I/Someone was cooking lunch." ↑ Past progressive. 3)「昼ごはんを作っている/作っています。」 = "I/Someone is cooking lunch." ↑ Present progressive. 4)「昼ごはんを作ってある/作ってあります。」 = "I/Someone cooked lunch (some time ago and it is ready to eat.) " ↑ Resultant state. Lunch has already ...


6

In the Vて+V case, I think loosely translating て as "by" here helps give a little intuition: 歩いて渡る "cross by walking" 歩かないで渡る "cross (not by walking)" 歩いて渡らない "not (cross by walking)" However, this intuition does not hold with auxiliary verbs (補助動詞{ほじょどうし}), and certainly not with inflectable particles (助動詞{じょどうし}). With auxiliary verbs, you ...


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