31

ちょっと待ってて (chotto matte te) literally means "Keep waiting for a while (please)." That て (te) at the end does not mean "I'll be back shortly", at least grammatically. ちょっと (chotto) just means "for a while", "a little", etc. 待ってて (matte te) is constructed as follows: 待つ (matsu): simple intransitive verb, "to wait" 待って (matte): te-form of 待つ 待っている (matte iru): ...


27

I think I don't have enough English vocabulary to express this nuance. So please let me try to explain this visually.   「~てきた」 First of all, 「~てきた」 expresses something in the past. If the speaker at present says 「~てきた」, s/he is talking about something which started sometime in the past and continued until now. Like the sentence, 「([今]{いま}まで)[私]{わたし}はまっすぐな[...


22

When you contract te oku to t'oku, you're still conjugating oku, so the normal rules apply. The only reason this might not be clear is that kana prevents us from dividing t'oku into t' and oku. Subsidiary verbs following ~て are grammaticalized, and people tend to contract grammatical words. So naturally, there are a number of contractions of ~て with ...


21

Subsidiary verbs, known as 補助動詞(ほじょどうし) in Japanese grammar, are a small set of verbs which have grammaticalized uses following 〜て. According to Martin†, these verbs include: いる・おる・いらっしゃる くる・まいる いく くれる・くださる しまう みる おく もらう・いただく ある・ございます やる・あげる みせる In these grammaticalized uses, they have several properties: They form a single ...


15

I think the most basic meaning in English is "wind up" or "end up". That seems to work for all of your sentences: どうしても写真は実物より劣ってしまう。 Somehow the photo always winds up being inferior to the real thing. 私はどうしても彼を目で追ってしまう。 I always somehow wind up following him with my eyes. 「私の場合、どうしても溝口健二と比べてしまう。」 In my case, I always somehow end up comparing ...


13

「〜いる」 primer Japanese is honestly far more simple than English when it comes to aspect. In Japanese, the rule is that 「〜いる」 means you are currently (or will be) in some state related to the verb, while 「〜いた」 means you had been in some state related to the verb. There are many such states: The state of doing something (progressive). The state of regularly ...


11

Yes, [来]{き}おる is a combination of [来]{く}る and [居]{お}る, although 居る in this usage is usually written in hiragana in the modern Japanese. Adding おる after the continuative form of a verb usually means that the speaker is looking down upon the subject of the verb. See sense 〔2〕-[2] in Daijirin and sense 3-① in Daijisen.


11

I think the usage of すぎる parallels that of "too much" — usually "too much" means that it's "so much that it's something negative". But colloquially, this can be used for emphasis, as in "so much that it is (almost) too much", meaning "very much" but in a positive (rather than a negative) way. (See also What does できなさすぎる mean?) For example, if you say ...


10

ワインを買っていく literally means "I'll buy wine and go". You'd say this to mean "I'll buy wine on my way to the place where you are (≂ I'll buy wine and bring it to the place where you are)", "I'll buy wine on my way to somewhere (away from the hearer) (≂ I'll buy wine and bring it to somewhere (away from the hearer))", or "I'll ...


10

That statement basically only applies for おる as a simple existence verb. Non-humble おる is very common in Kansai. As a subsidiary verb, various forms including とる/ちょる/よる are commonly used instead of standard (~て)いる, but there are considerable regional variations even inside Kansai. See this discussion. 太郎はおる。 There is Taro. / Taro is here. (≒太郎はいる) ...


10

You've gotten the みたい part wrong. What you are seeing is a subsidiary verb (~て)みる, which means "to try doing something (and see what happens)". See: What is the difference between "verb+て+みる" and "verb+(よ)う+とする"? みたい meaning "to seem / look like" never follows a te-form. 聞く "to ask" 聞いてみる "to try asking" 聞いてみたい "to want to try asking" ...


9

You could argue that the てしまう* doesn't technically add any new information to the sentence in the form of a subject or object, but that's not to say that it's not useful. *This is the same thing as てしまいます but in plain form -- don't worry about it for now, it's not relevant to this discussion Firstly, to clear up your question, the てしまいました is actually split ...


9

You've basically got it right. The sentence presents a counterfactual, and there are a couple of words/constructions that are there simply to denote a regretful situation. 特許を取っておかない is simply the negative of 特許を取っておく、which means "get a patent." The ておく construction is there to imply "get a patent in advance to prevent misuse of your invention." おかない just ...


9

かける can be used as an subsidiary verb to mean "start to [verb]", so 崩れかけた is indeed the 連用形 ren'yōkei (masu-stem) of 崩れる followed by かけた. 崩れかけた門 means "a gate, which has started to break down / deteriorate". Of course you would usually translate this more directly, maybe (for lack of a better word) "deteriorating / wrecked gate"....


8

〜てみた is the past tense of 〜てみる "to try to [verb]", e.g. 食べてみる to try to eat / to taste / to try [some food] 言ってみただけ usually means something like "just kidding". Of course, literally it means "I only tried to say it [because I thought it might be funny]". It's also a common way to backtrack and try to turn an inappropriate comment into something you "...


7

I might suggest a slightly different nuance in understanding the [補助動詞]{ほじょどうし} くれる. In question forms, it asks whether someone would do something for the speaker. In the past tense, it expresses when the speaker's judgment that he received some benefit from the action of the main verb. Thus, アイスを買ってくれた。 is not merely "he bought ice cream" , but ...


7

(1) chyotto matte tte (2) why does the tte mean "... and I'll be back shortly". (1) ちょっと待{ま}ってって ↓ 「ちょっと待{ま}って」って ↓ 「ちょっと待って(ください)」って ↓ 「ちょっと待って(ください)」と ↓ 「ちょっと待って(ください)」と(私{わたし}が言{い}ってるのに、あなたはなぜ待ってくれないの?) ↓ 「ちょっと待って(ください)」と(私が言ってるのに、あなたはなぜ待ってくれないの?) 「I'll be back shortly」って思{おも}ってるのに。 ↓ (2) Why don't you wait for me a moment in spite of my saying "...


7

No, adding すぎる to the end of a noun, verb, or adjective does not necessarily imply that being too much of something is bad, though we generally only use it this way colloquially. Some examples: 彼は大人(っぽ)すぎて本当に尊敬するわ。 He's so mature and I really respect him for that. 妻の料理が好きすぎてたまんない! I love my wife's cooking soooo f**king much!! さっきの犬可愛すぎる! That dog we just ...


6

This use of しまう is like adding "regrettably", or "unfortunately". It means that the action given in the て form is not a good thing. The fact that pictures don't do somebody justice is not a good thing. So they end the sentence with しまう. ああいう話{はな}し方{かた}は、人の年齢{ねんれい}をさらけだしてしまう。 "That style of speaking reveals a person's true age, unfortunately". This means ...


6

In the Vて+V case, I think loosely translating て as "by" here helps give a little intuition: 歩いて渡る "cross by walking" 歩かないで渡る "cross (not by walking)" 歩いて渡らない "not (cross by walking)" However, this intuition does not hold with auxiliary verbs (補助動詞{ほじょどうし}), and certainly not with inflectable particles (助動詞{じょどうし}). With auxiliary verbs, you ...


6

It's [歩]{ある}かないで[渡]{わた}る cross without walking 歩いて渡らない not cross on foot In this case you want the second option. For "not eating" it is usually 食べていない I haven't eaten whereas 食べないでいる is used to put emphasis on the duration of staying without eating, but 食べていない also implies a continued state of being without food. (There is more on this in this ...


6

In addition to the previous answer, often these forms are seen with an particle in the middle (は or も), and are used followed by for such as が・けど (examples borrowed/stolen from internet, any translation mistakes my own) 気持ち分からなくはないけど... It's not that I don't understand his feelings, but... (I do understand, but I still don't approve of his actions/won't ...


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