I managed to collect the data of kanji usage frequencies from various sources:
Japanese Wikipedia's snapshot
About 12900 files from Aozora Bunko - these are mostly novels, I believe
Public tweets from Twitter's Streaming API
Online news articles from various sources
You can find it here. The one you're looking for is "Aozora". There are files in JSON ...
Google Japan sells the Japanese version of "Google Ngram".
Here is the site: http://www.gsk.or.jp/catalog/GSK2007-C
But the site is only in Japanese. There might be the same site in English, though.
I hope it helps.
Yes, accents change when words are combined/conjugated/etc. I'm not sure if there are any truly sentence-level phenomena, but there is definitely more going on than just "words have the same accent all the time". The NHK dictionary does include a fair bit of information about these rules.
To take your examples -- here are some answers I got from consulting ...
囲み文字 are derived from Edo period corporate logos called 表号 which were one of the standard ways of naming or identifying a shop (屋号). You may see in the countryside some companies identify themselves with logos that look like hats or carpenter's squares. There is a good survey of traditional logos from one town here:
So in short, you're looking for the variations of the question words and what they mean, put into logical groupings. Is that on the mark?
Formatting literal tables is a bit of a pain here, so I'll provide bulleted lists for each of the words here to explain in more details instead of using table rows. The form will be as follows:
base - meaning
base + か ...
No, it is not. The Japanese use the Chinese Buddhist canon, which is written in classical Chinese. They read the texts using go-on readings throughout. There are of course translations into Japanese, just as there are into English, but they are only meant for study, not for ritual use, and are not considered canonical.
Not all ambiguous pairs can be distinguished by pitch, and we could just as easily provide you with loads of other ambiguous statements where NOTHING other than context could lead you to the right meaning.
This kind of thing happens in all languages: in English, if I tell a female friend "You have a nice pair/pear", she'll rely on context (I hope) to tell ...
Very insightful point! I think you are right that pitch matters. As a case in point, say if my daughter is reading a textbook aloud in homework and gets a pitch wrong, I would correct her, because it's noticable.
On the other hand, Japanese dictionaries written for Japanese do not have the pitch information either, and people from different regions often ...
I'm not Japanese, but as far as I know 「むぎゅむぎゅ」depicts squeezing something softly probably more than once as Sawa pointed out. I think you can use it in relation to some texture that has elasticity. The context it is used in can be cute, but is not limited to it. For instance, you see 「むぎゅむぎゅ」used to describe how the dough of a bagel feels. However, it is ...
This is a good example of how important context is. たくみ is a play on words, as they explain on their webpage:
El nombre Takumi representa la esencia del restaurante, “artesano”, “maestro”, además de la unión de los dos prestigiosos chefs, Toshio y Álvaro (TA) en el mismo equipo (Kumi), un juego de palabras perfecto que compone el espíritu del restaurante ...
Section 5 of the ipadic user manual (warning: 271KB PDF) has a list of Japanese parts of speech which seems quite exhaustive. Each entry includes the name for the part of speech in both Japanese and English, an explanation in English and several Japanese examples.
I suggest A Guide to Remembering Japanese Characters, by Kenneth Henshall. It gives both the true etymology (if known) and a mnemonic explanation that is more useful to memory. It seems to be exactly what you were looking for.
I doubt there is an official method or list of words used to explain kanji.
If there were an official method that were a lot more efficient, then regular people would probably be using it and nobody would be having problems explaining how things are spelled. Having an official list would mean one would have to memorize thousands of words, one for each ...
I do not think that this is an exhaustive list, but this is what I've managed to find so far. (I shall use "H" to denote "Honorific" and "h" to denote "humble"):
There is an official document (「異字同訓の漢字の使い分け例」) that covers a number of these. For example:
* 一般的には「創る」の代わりに「作る」と表記しても差し支えないが，事柄の「独創性」を 明確に示したい場合には，「創る」を用いる。
置 is the Japanese form of the character, used in Japan.
, as you gave it, is the Chinese form of the character used in simplified and traditional Chinese.
Because of Han unification, most browsers display characters using their Chinese form unless your browser's language tells them to do otherwise (i.e. your browser is in Japanese). Most people have their ...
Certainly there are some characters that have different stroke orders. As for traditional Chinese characters, there are a few radicals that you should watch out for:
In Japanese, the last three strokes are written: middle, left, right. In Chinese, it's left, middle, right.
In Japanese, the vertical stroke is written before the last two horizontal ...
While ssb’s answer is absolutely sufficient, I want to point out—in addition—an English resource that some may not think of in these circumstances.
Of the three current, major kanji–English dictionaries (Nelson, Spahn–Hadamitzky and Halpern), Jack Halpern’s New Japanese–English Character Dictionary is actually rather well equipped with information suited ...
Adding on to oals' answer:
to finish; to close; to do something completely; to put away; to put an end to
Common word, Godan verb with u ending, Transitive verb, Usually written using kana alone
Source: edict, searchable on jisho.org
It seems only しまう and 仕舞う are in common use (the others being rather obscure), and even among those two, I'...
There is some useful information on this on the official website http://www.jlpt.jp/:
a summary of what organizers consider required for passing N1, and
a self evaluation of what successful candidates think they can do.
Summary of linguistic competence required for N1
The ability to understand Japanese used in a variety of circumstances.
My friend showed me a pretty satisfying one. It has all the 常用漢字 and also the Kanji are divided into groups 小学1-6 to 中学. It shows what original pictographs today's Kanji had, and each radical is described. Give it a shot.
It's completely in Japanese though.
In 大辞泉 there are entries labelled 漢字項目 which sometimes give this information for on-readings (where there is separation, and it's usually not particularly clear-cut).
For example, 日.
Under ニチ they give five meanings with example compounds, and under ジツ they give two (out of the five given for ニチ already). So from that you can see that the meaning 日本のこと is ...
If you are looking for a structured approach to become familiar with different writing styles, common ways of constructing/planning essays, technical writing, newspapers, novels etc then I would suggest working your way through some 読解 text books for the JLPT. The written section which makes up 1/3 of marks but takes up 1/2 the time is a series of ...
It might be helpful to define what you mean by "authentic sentence examples". Actual sentences that have appeared on past exams? Study materials oriented towards the JLPT with "in-context" sentence examples? Or, content written for native speakers that would be helpful for JLPT study?
For the new exam format (N1, N2, etc.) I don't believe past papers are ...
The stackexchange network is designed for a very fairly specific question and answer format. Questions that don't have an authoritative or demonstrable answer aren't a good fit for sites like JLU. Because of this, I expect this question will be closed and/or moved to meta as soon as a moderator sees it.
You might be interested in looking at our resources ...
This isn't really an answer, but I am guessing that Japanese Buddhist scholars regularly read Chinese texts. Since that resource is already available and understandable (with a bit of extra studying) my guess is that a systematic translation into Japanese has not been carried out for all texts.
Yes there is.
This is probably what you want: Romaji Desu
Here is an example:
Definition of 生
生: いく /iku/ (pref) (arch) vital/virile/lively
生: うぶ /ubu/ (adj-na, n, adj-no) (1)
innocent/naive/unsophisticated/inexperienced/green/wet behind the
ears/(n-pref) (2) birth-
生: き /ki/ (n, pref) pure/undiluted/raw/crude
生: しょう /shou/ (n) (...
I'll leave my old answer up there, and write up what I said in the comments now that you've edited your question.
Character variants are uncountable. Officially, you already have:
Japanese 新字体, used in official print, according to the 常用漢字 list and 人名漢字 list
Japanese 旧字体 that weren't actually phased out fully, especially in names, according to the 人名漢字 ...