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28

The most commonly known ぬ is the helper verb of negation, similar to ない. It is, like ない, added to the [未然形]{みぜんけい}-base of a verb: [立]{た}たぬ=立たない=does not stand. However, in this case we have ぬ being added to 立ち, and there's a different story behind it. Note how the English wikipedia entry for [風]{かぜ}[立]{た}ちぬ says "The wind rises", with no negative ...


20

"Dropped" is not such an accurate word here as the 「て」 is optional in the first place. The te-form seems to enjoy a rockstar treatment in the world of Japanese-as-a-foreign-language. Learners love to talk about it, but what many rarely mention (or know about) is its informality. This is one of the things that took me by surprise when I started ...


19

Verb stem (masu-stem) as a noun can have various meanings depending on the original verb, and you may not be able to determine its meaning without referring to a dictionary. I generally recommend you memorize these, and avoid "coining" a new word unless you're really comfortable with Japanese. Person who does the action (≒ -er/-or) 酔っ払い drunkard のぞき peeper ...


17

まう has a core meaning of "turn around and around". This word is actually the root of the modern verb 回【まわ】る, and in the compound 見【み】舞【ま】う and its derivational noun form 見【み】舞【ま】い, it's the older "turn around" sense that's key -- not the "dance" sense. My copy of Shogakukan's 国語大辞典 lists this as the first definition for 見【み】舞【ま】う (emphasis mine): 警戒・監督・...


14

「Verb in 連用形{れんようけい}(continuative form) + は + しない」 = "would not (verb) one bit" ← rather emphatic 「い」 is the 連用形 of the verb 「いる」. 「誰{だれ}もいはしない」, therefore, means "no one would be (there)" You will encounter this grammar pattern over and over. Note that the 「は」 is occasionally replaced by a 「や」 in more informal speech.


11

Yes, your sentence is correct; you can connect sentences with the continuative form (連用形) of verbs, and here in your example you can use し, which is the continuative form of the verb する. 昨日無事に大学を卒業し、日曜日に国へ帰ります。 You can also use the te-form して: 昨日無事に大学を卒業して、日曜日に国へ帰ります。 (The continuative form 「~し、…」 sounds a bit more literary/formal and less casual/...


10

According to the Wikipedia article for 風立ちぬ (小説), this 〜ぬ is not the negative ぬ, but the past/perfect auxiliary ぬ (過去・完了の助動詞) and means "風が立った", or "the wind has risen". However, dictionaries identify it as only a perfect marker (完了), not a past tense marker (過去). For example, take a look at 大辞泉: 動作・作用が完了または実現したことを表す。…た。…てしまう。…てしまった。 This dictionary ...


8

The 連用形{れんようけい} ("continuative form") is one of the various 活用形{かつようけい} ("inflected forms") for 用言{ようげん} ("inflectable words") in Japanese. The way I like to explain this is somewhat non-standard, but I think more coherent than how it is usually explained. I will connect this explanation back to the standard way at the end. I think there are two things ...


8

こえ is a conjunctive form of the verb 越える{こえる} meaning roughly "to go past", "to go beyond", like 山を越える.


7

せん(=せぬ) is the classical version of しない, 'do not'. せ = the imperfective form (未然形) of the verb す, 'do' (す = classical version of する) ん = the negative auxiliary ぬ << derived from the classical negative ず 殺しはせん(連用形「殺し」 + particle は(= here it can be like 'at least') + verb せ + negative ん) is the classical way of saying 殺しはしない, 'I'm not killing / I'm ...


7

It has nothing to do with 「[痩]{や}せる」(= to become slimmer); That is for sure. 「してやせん」=「して + や + せん」 「して」, needless to say, is the て-form of 「する」. 「や」 is a colloquial (or regional) pronunciation of 「は」. See here: 大辞林 「や(係助)口頭語で、係助詞『は』がなまったもの。『誰も[来]{き}やしない(こやしない)』『霧で何も見えやしない』」 (Toward the bottom of the page) 「せん」 means 「しない」. 「~~してやせん」=「~~してはいない」 = "would/...


7

食べる eat 食べない not eat 食べはしない not eat (but do drink) 食べもしない not even eat 食べすらしない not even so much as eat and so on わ as a sentence-ender is used differently in different dialects. With no context here (壊すわ) it's hard to say exactly, but in general, in the standard dialect, it's used for feminine emphasis. [edit] per the comment from blutorange, the ...


7

No, it's not. This れ is the pre-masu-form (stem) of れる, and it doesn't require て after it. なく vs. なくて and stem form vs. てform as conjunctions Connecting phrases with the stem of masu-form Stem of ます-form as conjuction て versus combining-form for joining clauses In your example, you can insert て after 中断され without changing the meaning of the sentence. But ...


7

Often, especially in formal/written Japanese it is customary to connect two sentences using the pre-masu form (let's call it this way to be consistent with the reference linked below), that is, the -masu form without the ”ます” (for example: 食べる → 食べ, 行く → 行き, and so on). Think about this very common sentence for example: 。。。して頂{いただ}き誠{まこと}にありがとうございます。 I ...


7

It almost seems like they are trying to make a negative verb into an adverb but is that possible? Certainly, it's possible. ない conjugates just like an i-adjective. You will see this happen all the time. I'm not sure it's right to call it an adverb in this case but since it has the same form let's abuse the word. As you know, when you want to describe how ...


7

To generically answer your question as described in your title, masu-stem (aka 連用形) can often "nominalize" a verb, but the resulting nouns can have unpredictable meanings, and you have to learn them individually. Please see this answer. A good rule of thumb is that you should avoid trying to nominalize a verb using 連用形 unless you know what you are doing. To ...


6

No, that's a ren’yōkei 連用形。 A ren’yōkei mid-sentence is for coordination, like English “he sat, and…”. You can think of it as a literary equivalent of 「こしをかけて、。。。」 Kateikei is what comes before -ba, so in this case it would be kakere-. Full table, with sample context: 未然形: 掛け-  kake- (-nai) 連用形: 掛け-  kake- (-masu) 終止形: 掛ける kake-ru (yo.) 連体形: 掛ける- kake-ru-...


6

煮物 is a type of Japanese dish, which consists of food boiled in 出し (broth) and soy sauce, often with 料理酒 (cooking rice wine) and sugar. The name of all types of 煮物 usually end with ~煮, e.g. 筑前煮, 粗煮, etc. 角煮 is a type of 煮物 with cubed meat or fish as main ingredient, similar in looks to meat stew. 刻む is one of the types of chopping food, which usually is ...


6

お + [masu-stem] + ください is keigo (honorific speech) for [te-form] + ください. This rule works for verbs, which don't have a separate keigo verb, e.g. 切る お切りください If the verb does have a separate keigo form, the formation is different: お見ください → ご覧ください お言いください → おっしゃってください お行きください → いらしてください お来ください → おこしください


6

仕方 is indeed し方. 仕 is an ateji. The word looks more like a noun in its own right with a Chinese character at the beginning than otherwise. I don’t know how this particular character came to be used for し, but it is also used for the ます-stem of する in other words, such as: [仕事]{しごと} [仕様]{しよう} (しょうがない is a contraction of し様がない) [仕合]{しあい} (more commonly written ...


5

Would it surprise you if I told you that you are likely to have been using Japanese words of the same structure as 「開け口」 for years already --- 「[着物]{きもの}」,「[焼]{や}き[鳥]{とり}」, 「[食]{た}べ[物]{もの}」, etc. The structure is "[連用形]{れんようけい} of a verb + Noun". It is as simple as that. 「[開]{あ}け[口]{ぐち}」= The 連用形 of the verb [開]{あ}ける, which is [開]{あ}け + The noun [口]{くち} ...


5

より means "from" (similar to から). うけ(受け) is the 連用形 form of 受ける, "to receive", "to be given", etc.


5

The 問われ is not modifying the ロレンス. 連用形 of 用言 can be used to connect clauses or sentences like て形. Here the 連用形 「問われ」 is connecting two clauses/sentences: 「(ロレンスは)不機嫌な顔でまたも逆に問われ(る)」 and 「ロレンスはたじろいでしまう」. You can replace the 連用形 「問われ」 with the て形 「問われて」 without changing the meaning: 不機嫌な顔でまたも逆に問われロレンスはたじろいでしまうが・・・ ≒ 不機嫌な顔でまたも逆に問われて(、)ロレンスはたじろいでしまうが・・・ ...


5

This is a gross generalization, but very roughly speaking, the conjunctive form (technically the 連用形{れんようけい}) is vaguely analogous to the English -ing form. And much like the English -ing form, the 連用形 of a verb can often be used as a noun. A few examples: 行{ゆ}き来{き} can be glossed simply as going and coming 馬{うま}乗{の}り can be glossed as horse riding 巻{ま}き ...


5

Maybe writing it out with all needed Kanjis would help: 日本語で続きを読むなら手伝いますよ! "If you read the rest in Japanese then I will lend you a hand." With this, in the next sentence, she's saying: 続きを読んでほしいです。 "I want you to read the rest." Some points: 続き: Remember that this is a noun, not a verb, meaning the remaining, the following, the continuation, etc. ...


5

「漏る」という動詞は、現代語として存在します。 も・る【漏る/×洩る】 [動ラ五(四)] 1 「漏れる1」に同じ。「雨が―・る」 も・れる【漏れる/×洩れる】 1 液体・気体・光などがすきまから外へ出る。「ガスが―・れる」「声が―・れる」 なお、辞書には他にも定義が書いてありますが、個人的な経験では「雨漏り」のように、人間に由来しない自然物が、(通常、人間の意図に沿わない形で)漏れ出てくるような場面でしか聞いたことはありません。 BCCWJより若干の例文です。 百均で買ったマグカップだって、水が漏るわけじゃない。 隙洩る風に取り廻した張交屛風、湯の沸っている瀬戸の大火鉢 やがて漏るであろう屋根とか、やがて枯れるであろう木とか。 ("for the roof that will leak; for ...


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