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39

This phenomenon is called 連濁 (rendaku). The basic rules for rendaku can be found in the following question, so please take a look at it first: Rules or criteria for 連濁: Voiced or unvoiced syllables in compound words Now, in addition to the rules mentioned in the linked question, there is yet another rule (or "tendency") regarding rendaku: there are several ...


12

Weblio's hits for さんがく don't include 三角, which would suggest that this isn't standard. Google searches for "よこさんがく" and "あしさんがく" also return zero hits, while searches for "よこさんかく" and "あしさんかく" with the unvoiced か return relevant sites. I see that Kashiwazaki is from Iwate, and I believe that this kind of softening or additional voicing is a feature of ...


9

Although かぶしきかいしゃ is not wrong, かぶしきがいしゃ is more common in recent years, as explained in other answers. When the word 会社 follows a noun and forms a compound noun, it's usually read がいしゃ. For example, 株式会社 かぶしきがいしゃ 合名会社 ごうめいがいしゃ 合資会社 ごうしがいしゃ 合同会社 ごうどうがいしゃ 有限会社 ゆうげんがいしゃ 保険会社 ほけんがいしゃ 食品会社 しょくひんがいしゃ 格安航空会社 かくやすこうくうがいしゃ ...


8

/h/ is from original *p The Japanese fricative /h/ is reconstructed as coming from earlier *p (a voiceless labial stop; "labial" is a phonetic term for consonants pronounced with the lips). You can read more about this in books or articles about the phonology and phonetics of Old Japanese; Wikipedia mentions it in the "Old Japanese" article. The ...


7

It is normally a good idea to have a few different dictionaries you can refer to. In this case, however, it would be difficult without first removing the 濁点 (dakuten) and changing こもり to the standard verb form こもる. If you do that and try various readings, 籠る will give you this page, definition 1 being pertinent: to shut oneself in (e.g. one's room); to be ...


6

There are entries from 9 dictionaries on kotobank.jp. Three give no explicit reading, three say かぶしきがいしゃ, and three say かぶしきかいしゃ. Could it be any more inconclusive? I think I always hear it with rendaku, and two of the nine dictionary entries are from 大辞林 and 大辞泉, two popular monolingual dictionaries. These two may not be entirely independent indicators, ...


6

From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rendaku Rendaku (連濁?, lit. "sequential voicing") is a phenomenon in Japanese morphophonology that governs the voicing of the initial consonant of the non-initial portion of a compound or prefixed word. In modern Japanese, rendaku is common but at times unpredictable, with certain words unaffected by it. Rendaku is the ...


5

As the other answers point out, rendaku doesn't occur in mimetic or onomatopoeic words. The basis is always a particular sound (usually two morae), e.g. ふわ with a particular quality. From this sound the most common mimetic/onomatopoeic words are those obtained by doubling the sound, e.g. ふわふわ but in many cases there is also a common corresponding ...


5

つうじょうばん. For some reason this kanji always exhibits rendaku voicing when in suffix environment. 通常版【つうじょうばん】, 限定版【げんていばん】 "limited edition", 保存版【ほぞんばん】 "collector's edition", 英語版【えいごばん】 "English version", キリシタン版【ばん】 "(Medieval Japan) Jesuit Mission presses" etc. And as a counter-word: 1版 いっぱん 2版 にはん 3版 さんぱん or さんはん 4版 よんぱん or よんはん 5版 ごはん 6版 ろっぱん or ろくはん ...


5

It's つうじょうばん. 版【はん】 = version, edition Although 版 is read as はん by itself, 版 in 通常版 would be read as ばん, due to rendaku phenomenon.


5

Even if you read 6分 as ろくふん, it's ok. But ろっぷん is easier to pronounce and much more common. It's the same when it's used like 5.6分, which is usually ごーてんろっぷん.


4

係 as a noun on its own is read かかり, but 係 in a compound noun is read がかり due to rendaku. So yes, 新聞係 is read しんぶんがかり. 運ぶ係 is a fairly ordinary phrase made of a noun and a relative clause modifying it, so 係 is read かかり because it's a standalone noun. On the other hand, 運び係 is essentially a noun-noun compound, so 係 is read がかり. (As you probably know, the masu-...


4

It is impossible to explain exactly when [連濁]{れんだく} happens and when it doesn't. The linked Wikipedia article also explains: In modern Japanese, rendaku is common but at times unpredictable, with certain words unaffected by it. The way I understand it is it happens when two kanji words are combined. For example from the above link: [人]{ひと} + [人]{...


4

{{pad}}There are many exceptions, but the general rule is that the second component of an on-yomi compound is not voiced. This includes on-yomi reduplicative words like 少々【しょうしょう】, 多々【たた】, 点々【てんてん】, 嬉々【きき】, 着々【ちゃくちゃく】, 淡々【たんたん】, 個々【ここ】 and 早々【そうそう】. There are exceptions like 種々【しゅじゅ】 and 方々【ほうぼう】. Ultimately, you have to learn them one by one. See: Rules or ...


3

There's a page here on the 9 different changes that can occur in Japanese when words or syllables are joined. https://jn1et.com/hennonngennshou/ The insertion of a つ is 促音化 sokuonka (gemination in English). The general rules are relatively straightforward for most two on-yomi compounds. First character reading ends in tsu followed by k, s or t -> tsu ...


3

株式会社 is pronounced both kabushiki kaisha and kabushiki gaisha. But it is predominantly pronounced kabushiki gaisha today in Japan. By the same token, more people call 投資信託会社 (investment trust company) tōshi shintaku gaisha instead of tōshi shintaku kaisha. When you voice 株式 and 会社 separately, you should pronounce them kabushiki and kaisha individually. We ...


3

English There's two possible explanations here, and from a little bit of searching, it doesn't seem like anyone knows which is right (or that anyone's really thought much about it). Option 1: Rendaku plus metathesis (as Earthling suggested). te + tsutau > tedzutau > tetsudau. There might be another example of this happening with 舌鼓 - shita + tsutsumi > ...


3

It's been explained a bit in the comment replies already, but... Why do they read as Ichibanboshi? Isn't the Kunyomi of 星 is hoshi? As mentioned, this is "rendaku" in action. In compound words (such as 一番星), the later words sometimes have their first kana become accented. There are many such words. There are some rules that guide whether a word is ...


3

ふかふか is more like an onomatopoeia (the formation of a word form a sound associated with what is named) instead of connecting two words. More examples are: きらきら (shining) [e.g. このダイヤはキラキラしている] はらはら (being nervous) [e.g. ハラハラした] からから (drying) [e.g. のどがカラカラ] かりかり (irritating) [e.g. カリカリしないで] ひとびと is 人々 so it's connecting two words. if you say ...


2

Rendaku in proper nouns are basically random and unpredictable. Native speakers read new proper nouns purely based on their previous experiences, and ordinary people are not explicitly aware of any rules. Native speakers make mistakes often when it comes to rendaku. I don't know why 千葉 is ちば but 石川 is いしかわ. A correct reading can vary depending on what/who it ...


2

These adverb classes are all related. At their root is the singular form, usually two morae in length, such as the にこ in にこにこ and にっこり, or the ぎゅう in ぎゅっと and ぎゅうぎゅう, or the ほそ in ほそぼそ and ほっそり. Some of these singular forms also comprise the roots of other words, or are cognate with those roots, such as ほそ also appearing in 細{ほそ}い, 細{ほそ}める, etc., or にこ ...


2

You're describing what's known as sandhi, specifically rendaku and gemination. It happens a bunch in Japanese, but the rules are notoriously complex. For example it's unclear to me why 学祭{がくさい} couldn't be がっさい. You can read about it some more here.


2

I believe the name for this process is rendaku. More here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rendaku


1

I think your understanding is correct. In Japanese elementary schools students are assigned to a 係. Like 給食を運ぶ係(給食係) 黒板をキレイにする係(黒板係). Although 新聞係 is more formal than 新聞を運ぶ係.


1

Unfortunately I think there is no logical explanation. Even a pair of 2 identical kanjis may have "both versions" eg when used in names. One example is 大島 ("big island"), with the "大島" that island being southwest of Tokyo, close to Izu peninsula is "shima", there is a railway station in Tokyo with the same kanji, but that one is "jima"


1

I'm not sure why you are downvoted, because I think this is an excellent question! Sometimes, when two words in Japanese combines, the beginning of the second word changes and gets ゛ (濁点.) 雨 (あめ) 隠れ (かくれ) is a good one, because I'd read it as "ama-gakure", so not only does "ka" get 濁点 but "ame" also changes to "ama." Here are some other examples, including ...


1

Well, all the Japanese counters have some irregularities. In this case, the standard counter for minutes is ふん, but in some numbers it changes. 1: いっぷん 2: にふん 3: さんぷん 4: よんぷん 5: ごふん 6: ろっぷん 7: ななふん 8: はっぷん 9: きゅうふん 10: じゅっぷん


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