In English, the tense of the main clause and relative clauses is usually relative to the time at which the sentence is spoken.
I waited until the bus came.
You use the past tense on both verbs because both the waiting and the coming happened in the past. But while you were waiting, the bus hadn't come yet! So, relative to the action of waiting, the bus ...
The Japanese language is based on relative tense. In your case, you have to choose みたいです ("seems") and みたいでした ("seemed") simply based on the time of your observation, but いない and いなかった are relative to the time of your observation.
= It looked like there was no one.
(You investigated the room a while ago and thought no one was there at that time....
I am not a Japanese grammar expert but just a native Japanese speaker.
I think you can say 「ローマに住んでいる時、子供でした。」.
I personally think there is no difference between the meanings.
However, as the comment of the original question mentioned, the sentence 「ローマに住んでいる時、子供でした。」is a little bit wired even though it is ...
Absolute times are ones that stay where they are as time moves onwards, or to think of it another way they're the ones that you can circle on a calendar or measure on a clock. So "Tuesday" or "May 25th" or "4 AM" are all absolute times, and the ever-changing now will eventually catch up to them and then pass them.
Relative times are ones measured in ...
(Disclaimer: I am a native Japanese speaker, but not an expert of language)
I feel there is a slight difference in meaning between (a) and (b).
Sentence (a) is the natural choice in most cases because of the relative-tense rule you have described. But (b) may be used to describe certain situations:
Other people ...
Some key points to consider when analysing your sentences:
1. Using the terminology of the Dictionary of Japanese Grammar series, your sentences are of the format S1 toki S2 (Sentence 1 とき Sentence 2).
2. According to that dictionary's explanation (p493 of 'A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar'), when S2 is past tense and S1 expresses a state, you can ...
When going to Thailand, I studied a little of Thai.
Because 行く refers either to the present or future, it means that I studied Thai BEFORE going to Thailand.
When I went to Thailand, I studied a little of Thai.
This has the exact same meaning as in English. I went to Thailand, THEN I studied Thai.
抜けたら has nothing to do with past tense.
According to "A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar", page 452:
"たら is a subordinate conjunction which indicates that the action/state expressed by the main clause in a sentence takes place after the action/state expressed by the subordinate clause."
If Mr. Yamada comes, I will go home.
呼ばれると思う: I think I will be called.
呼ばれたと思う: I think I was called.
呼ばれると思った: I thought I was going to be called.
呼ばれたと思った: I thought I was called.
The double past is possible in Japanese, but it works differently from English. The Japanese language is based on relative tense. In general, the double past is used in Japanese when two ...
An absolute time or date is a time period that will refer to the same time, regardless of when it is mentioned. These are typically exact times (on the same day in the current timezone unless otherwise stated) or calendar dates. In Japanese these are usually marked with the に particle but this can be omitted in casual conversation. For example: