12

First of all, to answer the unasked question, this usage of を is acceptable. In English, as you are no doubt aware, sometimes we need a phrase to describe our nouns. For example: This is an air conditioning shoe. The extra information, though far fetched, tells us why our noun of interest (shoe) is special. Likewise in Japanese we have phrases that ...


9

[時]{とき}を[食]{く}らうもの, which is translated as "Time Devourer" As @bjorn says in the comment, the もの can be [者]{もの} "person/someone", as well as [物]{もの} "thing/object/something". It's (perhaps intentionally) written in Hiragana because it's referring to a monster. Is the もの used as sort of a -er suffix, or does it have a different function? The もの is a ...


8

In addition to naruto's answer, I'd like to point out that the relative clause "that" that's used in English (even in this very sentence) doesn't exist in Japanese, simply because the structure of the language is different. It might be easier to explain using examples. Let's look at your sample sentence in English. I saw the cow that ate vegetables at ...


7

を is the object marker. 体を冷たくするスプレー is a noun phrase. 服を着た人形 is also a noun phrase. The basic structure of this sentence is AをBにかける. If you think A is 体を冷たくするスプレー and B is 服を着た人形 , the sentence is easy to understand.


6

[甘い匂いのひやひやとした露が、毛穴へ染み入る]皮膚のよろこびは格別であった。 甘い匂いのひやひやとした露が、毛穴へ染み入る is a relative clause modifying 皮膚. The subject of 染み入る is 甘い匂いのひやひやとした露. The sentence roughly means something like..... "The delight of the skin [into the pores of which the sweet scented and chilly dew penetrated] was exceptional" / "The delight of the skin [when the sweet scented and ...


6

I think you've misunderstood the sentence because of the ambiguities in the form Aが好きなBだ. For example, 犬が好きな人だ can mean both that (I am) a person that likes dogs as well as (I am) a person that dogs like depending on the context (although I think it's most likely to be interpreted in the former way). However, 寿司が好きな人だ can only mean (I am) a person ...


6

「あなたが一番{いちばん}したいことはなんですか?」 This sentece is perfect in every way and it means what you said -- "What is the thing you want to do most?". Can が always be used to mark the one who desires something in a "~たい"-sentence, or is it something that is limited to relative clauses such as the one in the second example? It is the latter. 「あなたが一番したい」 is a ...


5

{頭を下げられる}俺 頭を下げられる is a relative clause modifying 俺, so rearranging it to a normal word order... 俺が(彼女に)頭を下げられる。 I am bowed to (by her) This is passive, so turning it to the active voice.. 彼女が俺に頭を下げる。 She bows to me / She begs me Cf. {頼まれる}俺 →俺が(彼女に)頼まれる I am asked (by her) →彼女が俺に頼む She asks me


5

「日本語がかんたんな本」 is a noun phrase where 「日本語がかんたんな」 is a relative clause modifying 「本」. Its non-relative version would be: (その)本は、日本語がかんたんです。 lit. As for the book, Japanese is simple. → The book is written in simple Japanese. 「もう少し」("a little more") is an adverb that modifies the na-adjective 「かんたんな」("simple"). You can parse your example this way: [(...


5

考えさせられる小説 is a correct Japanese expression, and it indeed means "a novel that makes you think (deeply)." (Note that させる/させられる is not necessarily forcible. The use of "force" is too strong.) Technically speaking, 考えさせられる小説 can also mean "the novel that is made to think", but that's nonsense. Grammatically, this is an adverbial-head relative clause made from: ...


5

Limanido, Ringil's explanation of the grammar is correct, but there are a couple of additional issues you might want to consider. First, notice that 戦いを好み is also part of the phrase that modifies ならず者. (Here, 好み is not a noun, as you have assumed, but the 連用形 of the verb 好む.) Also, the meaning of 星 in Japanese is much broader than that of "star" in English, ...


4

Your sentences have several flaws unrelated to your main concern. 話を話す ("to talk a talk"?) is weird, and you have to say 話をする instead. 旅行の後で帰る sounds clumsy and redundant, and it's better to say 旅行から帰る. When you introduce the definition of a word, it's better to use とは instead of は. After fixing these, yes, you can say all of the following. ...


4

This is a very important construction called a relative clause. [教]{おし}える[人]{ひと} a person who teaches The rule is described in detail in this question: Relative clauses distinguishing whom/with which/that


4

In general, it is safe to use a verb directly before a noun. There is no modification needed. If you add の after a verb, you turn it into a noun. Two nouns cannot be connected directly, there has to be a の inbetween, as in 私の本. HTH Zeyuan


4

Grammatically, this is an inherent ambiguity of Japanese relative clauses. A Japanese relative clause works by changing the word order and dropping a case particle like が, を or に, and therefore it may result in an ambiguous phrase. This typically happens when both the subject and the object are humans. 人物を書く。 (Someone) write the (name of the) person. ...


4

They are slightly different, if not much. The former sounds saying a fact relatively objectively. On the other hand, the latter rather means "although an apple was on the plate, s/he stole it" and it sounds somehow accusive in the sense that it should have been there. In grammar for old Japanese, a similar form is considered a conjunction. When are head-...


4

学校の窓ガラスを割った生徒に反省文を書かせました The key grammar point you are looking for is "relative clause". The main sentence here is: 生徒に反省文を書かせました He/she/the teacher made the student write an apology We can describe what kind of student it was with a relative clause (the part in bold): 学校の窓ガラスを割った生徒 The student who broke the school's window The whole relative ...


3

The whole text I suspect this might be easier to parse if we view this as a single piece of text, rather than four statements. いまだ成功した者はいない「禁断の地」への冒険、ムボウとも言えるその計画にいどむフォン・ミュラー氏とバレル博士が・・・ This is complicated grammar, but essentially this is a long descriptive set of dependent clauses that all modify the subjects of the sentence, フォン・ミュラー氏とバレル博士 ...


3

You can rearrange... AはBを食べる → Aが食べるB ("B that A eats") → Bを食べるA ("A that eats B") (You usually don't use the topic particle は in a relative clause. 「Aが食べるB」 would sound more natural than 「Aは食べるB」 in most situations.) 川を天の川に見立てた → 天の川に見立てた川 → 川を見立てた天の川 (In 昔は天の川に見立てた川に笹を流して願い事をする行事なんかもあった, 昔は modifies (行事なんかも)あった, not (天の川に)見立てた.) YYがXXをプレッシャーにさらす → ...


3

お願いをするあの子たち by itself can mean both: those girls who (will) ask a favor (of someone else) those girls I (will) ask a favor of Judging from the context you provided, I think it probably means the latter, i.e., this person is going to ask a favor of those girls. But I don't know what this お願い actually refers to.


3

It means: the kind of guy who has many girlfriends AようなB means "a B that is like A," which in English we could also translate as "an A kind of B." Recall also that いる, like ある can mean "to have". 彼女がいる = I have a girlfriend.


3

呪縛から解放されるウソという名の魔法 (It's) A magic called 'Lie', which unleashes you from the curse. 呪縛から解放される: "with which one is unleashed from the bond/curse". This is an adverbial-head relative clause that modifies ウソという名の魔法. 呪縛 is something that binds you psychologically. How is the subject of this subclause made clear? ウソという名の: "of the name lie" 魔法: "magic". The ...


3

Your understanding is basically correct. There was no such a thing as komi in the Edo era in the first place. So the sentence should be parsed like: (ルールのちがう(コミのない時代)) Rather than: (ルールのちがう(コミ))のない時代 In other words, it's "the komi-less era when rules were different" rather than "the era when komi with different rules did not exist". If it were ...


3

駅 is connected to 建設. 「駅の建設」というふうにつながります。 The non-relative version of 「JR東日本が(東京の山手線の品川駅と田町駅の間で)建設を進めている(新しい)駅」 is... 「JR東日本が(東京の山手線の品川駅と田町駅の間で)(新しい)駅の建設を進めている。」


3

多い is just a special case word, where, on its own modifying a noun, it takes the form 多くの. However, it can take the 多い form attributively as part of a longer relative clause such as オーストラリア人の多い場所 'a place where there are many Australians'.


3

Both meanings are possible with 彼が好きな人. It'd have to be decided on context, but if someone were to hear that out of the blue, they'd be far more likely to think that it means A person he likes. If you really wanted to unambiguously say A person who likes him, the best way is probably by saying 彼のことが好きな人. There are other ways such as for example saying ...


3

You aren't wrong that there are two objects marked by を, but there are also two verbs, 割った and 書かせました. This should give you a clue that the sentence is complex in some sense. The reason is that the first part of your sentence is a noun phrase (a relative clause). Looking at this example, it is the noun 生徒 that is being modified to give you a more complex ...


2

日本人が大好きな桜の花 is the subject of the verb 咲く, and the subject of the verb 違います is 日本人が大好きな桜の花がいつ頃咲くか. The whole structure of this sentence is like this. In 観光やレジャーが目的, 観光やレジャー is the subject of 目的で(目的だ) and not 行く. It says 観光やレジャー is the purpose of 行く.


2

検査 is the object of 行っていました. A simplified version of this sentence is: 3つの会社は検査を行って【おこなって】いました。 The three companies were conducting examinations. 行っていました is modified by a long adverbial expression 国が決めたルールと違うやり方で ("in a way that is different from rules set by the government").


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