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「私は日本語を勉強したい理由」 This is a nice try, but the 「は」 needs to be replaced by a 「が」. 「は」 is not an option here. Why not? That is because 「私が日本語を勉強したい」 is a relative clause that modifies 「理由」, correct? Inside if-clauses and relative clauses, the subject/topic marker is always 「が」. We say: 「ジョーンズさんが買った車はBMWです。」 「あなたが日本に行くなら、私もいっしょに行きたい。」 The 「が」 in either ...


8

In addition to naruto's answer, I'd like to point out that the relative clause "that" that's used in English (even in this very sentence) doesn't exist in Japanese, simply because the structure of the language is different. It might be easier to explain using examples. Let's look at your sample sentence in English. I saw the cow that ate vegetables at ...


6

I think you've misunderstood the sentence because of the ambiguities in the form Aが好きなBだ. For example, 犬が好きな人だ can mean both that (I am) a person that likes dogs as well as (I am) a person that dogs like depending on the context (although I think it's most likely to be interpreted in the former way). However, 寿司が好きな人だ can only mean (I am) a person ...


6

「あなたが一番{いちばん}したいことはなんですか?」 This sentece is perfect in every way and it means what you said -- "What is the thing you want to do most?". Can が always be used to mark the one who desires something in a "~たい"-sentence, or is it something that is limited to relative clauses such as the one in the second example? It is the latter. 「あなたが一番したい」 is a ...


6

Anyway, is this right? Unfortunately, no. The particle you need is を, not に. 下に would mean downwards. Making sense of transitive usage of 行く and 来る - 「を行く」 and 「を来る」 この道をまっすぐ行ってください。 Why を and not で? 下を走った橋 should be understandable if there's enough context, but if you worry about ambiguity, it may be better to explicitly add the subject of 走る and say ...


6

Your sentence: 値段{ねだん}が高{たか}いレストランはあまり好{す}きじゃない。 Have you come across the concept of a relative clause yet? Look this up. In English nouns are modified by adjectives. In Japanese nouns can also be modified by entire clauses. In this case 値段が高い is a sentence/clause in its own right with the meaning "the price is high". This is the relative clause here ...


5

Without the だけ and だから, you have a long noun phrase, which you could parse... [〈(身の危険が迫った)時に〉発現する]能力 身の危険が迫った modifies 時. [身の危険が迫った]時に = lit. "at times [when physical danger is approaching]" 身の危険が迫った時に発現する modifies 能力. [(身の危険が迫った)時に発現する]能力 = lit. "ability [that appears at times (when physical danger is approaching)] Adding だけ: 「~~時に...」 = ...


5

Limanido, Ringil's explanation of the grammar is correct, but there are a couple of additional issues you might want to consider. First, notice that 戦いを好み is also part of the phrase that modifies ならず者. (Here, 好み is not a noun, as you have assumed, but the 連用形 of the verb 好む.) Also, the meaning of 星 in Japanese is much broader than that of "star" in English, ...


5

{頭を下げられる}俺 頭を下げられる is a relative clause modifying 俺, so rearranging it to a normal word order... 俺が(彼女に)頭を下げられる。 I am bowed to (by her) This is passive, so turning it to the active voice.. 彼女が俺に頭を下げる。 She bows to me / She begs me Cf. {頼まれる}俺 →俺が(彼女に)頼まれる I am asked (by her) →彼女が俺に頼む She asks me


5

Grammatically, this is an inherent ambiguity of Japanese relative clauses. A Japanese relative clause works by changing the word order and dropping a case particle like が, を or に, and therefore it may result in an ambiguous phrase. This typically happens when both the subject and the object are humans. 人物を書く。 (Someone) write the (name of the) person. ...


4

They are slightly different, if not much. The former sounds saying a fact relatively objectively. On the other hand, the latter rather means "although an apple was on the plate, s/he stole it" and it sounds somehow accusive in the sense that it should have been there. In grammar for old Japanese, a similar form is considered a conjunction. When are head-...


4

学校の窓ガラスを割った生徒に反省文を書かせました The key grammar point you are looking for is "relative clause". The main sentence here is: 生徒に反省文を書かせました He/she/the teacher made the student write an apology We can describe what kind of student it was with a relative clause (the part in bold): 学校の窓ガラスを割った生徒 The student who broke the school's window The whole relative ...


4

Your translation is correct, and どんな意味が込められているのか考えるもの(=形) is a completely natural Japanese phrase at the same time. Grammatically speaking, I think this is something called a gapless relative clause explained here. Other similar examples include: 英語を学ぶ楽しみ the joy of learning English (not "the joy which is learning English") カエルが水に飛び込む音 the sound of a frog ...


4

Your translation is 100% spot on. However, this usage of 考える is neither colloquial nor poor use of the language. Following your same logic, パッと見て何を模したかわかる形 would imply that the 形 is the thing doing the looking and the understanding, but we know that to not be the case. We know that the thing doing the looking and understanding is a general person, the '...


4

This 'の' should most naturally be regarded as an apposition, rather than possession. So it refers to a 姉さん, who is your 親戚. Looking up a dictionary, the definition of the word 姉さん usually starts with these two: older sister (広辞苑: >「あね」の軽い尊敬語…) young lady (広辞苑: > 若い女性を呼ぶ称。) In the phrase 親戚の姉さん, it falls somewhat in between. I think "a female, comparative ...


3

This ため in 生きるため is a purpose marker, not a reason marker. The closest English noun is "sake" as in "for safety's sake", but you can choose to use other expressions that can express a purpose. 英語を勉強するため(に)学校に行く to go to school in order to study English 安全のため(に)ヘルメットを被る to wear an helmet for safety's sake Therefore this 生きるためよ is translated as ...


3

You aren't wrong that there are two objects marked by を, but there are also two verbs, 割った and 書かせました. This should give you a clue that the sentence is complex in some sense. The reason is that the first part of your sentence is a noun phrase (a relative clause). Looking at this example, it is the noun 生徒 that is being modified to give you a more complex ...


3

Both meanings are possible with 彼が好きな人. It'd have to be decided on context, but if someone were to hear that out of the blue, they'd be far more likely to think that it means A person he likes. If you really wanted to unambiguously say A person who likes him, the best way is probably by saying 彼のことが好きな人. There are other ways such as for example saying ...


3

多い is just a special case word, where, on its own modifying a noun, it takes the form 多くの. However, it can take the 多い form attributively as part of a longer relative clause such as オーストラリア人の多い場所 'a place where there are many Australians'.


3

The whole text I suspect this might be easier to parse if we view this as a single piece of text, rather than four statements. いまだ成功した者はいない「禁断の地」への冒険、ムボウとも言えるその計画にいどむフォン・ミュラー氏とバレル博士が・・・ This is complicated grammar, but essentially this is a long descriptive set of dependent clauses that all modify the subjects of the sentence, フォン・ミュラー氏とバレル博士 ...


3

You can rearrange... AはBを食べる → Aが食べるB ("B that A eats") → Bを食べるA ("A that eats B") (You usually don't use the topic particle は in a relative clause. 「Aが食べるB」 would sound more natural than 「Aは食べるB」 in most situations.) 川を天の川に見立てた → 天の川に見立てた川 → 川を見立てた天の川 (In 昔は天の川に見立てた川に笹を流して願い事をする行事なんかもあった, 昔は modifies (行事なんかも)あった, not (天の川に)見立てた.) YYがXXをプレッシャーにさらす → ...


2

I think you're getting confused by the differences in the English translations. The function of nominalizing の in both of your examples is identical: it nominalizes the preceding verbal phrase. English requires various coordinating pieces to connect phrases, things like "that" and "the one who". The の works a bit like these coordinating pieces in English. ...


2

It modifies the noun ならず者. Here's a simpler example: 本を読む - (I) read books 本を読む子 - A child who reads books 本を読む男の子 - A male child who reads books In your example, being fairly literal, we have [[ほかの星]を侵略する][ならず者だった] - They were hooligans who invaded other stars [[ほかの星]を侵略する] [宇宙のならず者だった] - They were hooligans of the universe who ...


2

Thanks to @ZLK 's comment @naruto 's answer: These are called relative clauses. They're constructed by simply writing the clause without the subject and then placing the subject afterwards. Thus, At the shop I saw the cow that ate vegetables becomes 店で野菜を食べた牛を見ました。


2

Yes, it would be grammatically incorrect. たかい[値段]{ねだん} の レストラン would be the grammatically correct equivalent (notice the の particle). First look at [値段]{ねだん}がたかい separately : it means "The price(s) is/are high". が marks the subject of a sentence in Japanese. By the way yes, [値段]{ねだん}がたかい is a sentence, even though you may notice there isn't any verb per se : ...


1

The short answer is yes. You can even say 形式名詞 is always preceded by a modifier, which is usually a relative clause (and sometimes an attributive like それ, あの). Some 形式名詞 like とき work without a modifier, in which case they are not called 形式名詞. 彼が猫を見るとき when he watches a cat (↑ This とき is a formal noun) ときは来た。 The time has come. (↑ This とき is an ...


1

To me it looks like there are two adverbial clauses, both "modifying" the final verb 噴出した by specifying when that act happened. So the verb phrases that come before 深夜 and 瞬間 are just modifying the respective temporal noun, turning each comma separated section into a clause. [受験勉強で疲弊した深夜]、[グレープフルーツのへそに親指を挿入した瞬間]、胸からぷしゅっと黄色の粒子が噴出した。 Notice that each ...


1

The grammatical term you're looking for is relative clause (関係節 or 連体修飾節 in Japanese). With this keyword, you should be able to find enough articles, but this answer is a good starter: https://japanese.stackexchange.com/a/14550/5010


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