16

Roman Jakobson famously said: "Languages differ essentially in what they must convey and not in what they may convey." His point was that every language can sufficiently convey any idea that can be expressed in another language. The difference is that for each language there are some properties that must be specified when an idea is conveyed, even though ...


9

Sequential voicing (called 連濁【れんだく】 in Japanese) isn't predictable, but there are rules that describe when it's "blocked"--in other words, when it's much less likely to occur. None of these rules are absolutes, though, and we can find some exceptions. Reduplication commonly results in sequential voicing: 黒々    (くろぐろ) 人々    (ひとびと) 華々しい  (はなばなしい) それぞれ  (...


8

There are actually two types of words here. One is [擬音語]{ぎ・おん・ご} which are onomotopoeia: words representing sounds. Some examples of this are ワンワン (dog barking), ガリガリ (scratching, crunching - like ガリガリ君 popsicles), and ころころ (sound of something rolling). The other type is [擬態語]{ぎ・たい・ご} which "depict non-auditory senses". Your examples fall into this ...


8

明鏡国語辞典 says としどし is a 名詞 and ねんねん is a 副詞. としどし【年年】〘名〙年を追うごと。年ごと。ねんねん。「ーーにさびれてきた祭事」 ねんねん【年年】〘副〙年とともにだんだん。年ごとに。「ーー輸入が増加する」 So.. How do you guys read these kanji 年々 in a sentence? I'd read it as ねんねん when it's functioning as a 副詞(adverb) by itself, and as としどし when it's used as a 名詞(noun), followed by a case particle.


7

Does ぺこぺこ come from ''peckish''? No. Its derivation is from purely Japanese roots. Textual history ぺこぺこ is traced to texts from the early 1900s late 1800s (thank you, snailcar!). Granted, that's late enough to be an English-inspired term. However, let's look deeper. Notice that this starts with a //p//. Historically, all of the modern //h// (and the /...


4

In modern Japanese, わざわざ and わざと are different adverbs. わざわざ mainly means "to bother to do ~ (although it's not necessary); to take the trouble to do ~; all the way; specially", whereas わざと means "do ~ on purpose (knowing it's usually a bad thing to do it); intentionally for a reason". But わざわざ sometimes means "intentionally", and in this case the two are ...


3

The function of 々 is to repeat kanji in a word, for example 日々 ("day-to-day"), 木々 ("trees") and 各々 ("each"). You cannot use 々 for 泣く泣く, まだまだ and most onomatopoeia. In addition, 々 is usually not used across word boundaries. For example 会社社長 ("company president") is usually written without 々 because 会社社長 is two words. There is also a symbol called くの字点, with ...


3

日本語 年年{ねんねん} or 年々{ねんねん} 庭に植えた木は年々{ねんねん} 大きくなっています。 庭に植えたバラは年々{ねんねん} きれいな花を咲かせます。 年年{ねんねん} あるいは 年々{ねんねん} は、「毎年徐々に」、あるいは、「毎年のように」のように、毎年状態が一定である、あるいは一定の傾向であるような意味で扱う時に使う. 年年{としどし} 庭に植えたバラは年年{としどし}で花の咲き具合が違います。  年年{としどし} は、各々の年が特徴ある個別のものであるとして扱う時に使う。 EDIT 「年々{ねんねん}あるいは年々{ねんねん}」と「年年{としどし}」とは使っている漢字は同じですが、意味や用法がかなり違います。 「ねんねん」は、「毎年{まいとし}」あるいは「年が進{すす}...


3

According to jiho.org here, they are difined as: 晴れ晴れ earch for 晴ればれ Adverb, Adverb taking the 'to' particle, Suru verb 1. bright; cheerful ​ Other forms 晴晴 【はればれ】、晴々 【はればれ】、晴ればれ 【はればれ】、晴{は}れ晴{ばれ} 晴れ晴れしい I-adjective 1. clear; splendid; cheerful; bright (e.g. look) ​ Other forms 晴々しい 【はればれしい】 Difference: 1) 品詞が違う。 They have a ...


2

Verb stem + -しい adjectives in general Expanding on user4092's answer, and in the spirit of exploring word formation patterns, it is worth noting that there are various -しい adjectives that derive from the 未然形【みぜんけい】 (incomplete form) of verbs. Examples: 疑【うたが】わしい "suspicious, fishy", from 疑【うたが】う "to doubt, to suspect" 優【やさ】しい "kind" (evolving from "modest"...


2

The word it's based of is 忌む, which means to avoid (jinx). 忌々しい stands for such attribution as one wants to avoid.


2

I assume you already know onomatopoeia/mimetic words such as キラキラ and ヒューヒュー, which heavily use reduplication. The following is only about duplicated verbs. There are a few words that appear in the form of "repeated verbs", but you have to memorize their meanings one by one, looking them up in a dictionary: 休み休み (no-adj): "resting at times; with pauses" ...


2

The usages of those "reduplicated words" vary. 仰々しい, 苦々しい, 馬鹿馬鹿しい: works only as an i-adjective 高々, 渋々, 延々, 脈々, 飄々, 黙々, 泣く泣く, ワンワン, ピューピュー, じゃんじゃん: works only as a standalone adverb (some are followed by と) 様々: works only as a na-adjective 直々: works only as a no-adjective 喧々諤々, 明々白々: works both as a na-adjective and a no-adjective 色々: works both as a na-...


1

The meaning of "along the way" is rare and that of "every road" is far more dominant for 道々. 口々 doesn't mean "bad mouthing" but "every mouth". It almost only appears in this set phrase: (人々は、みな)口々に言う (Everyone says).


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